Black Education in English Language Teaching
Many English language teachers in the foreigners` classrooms have experienced failure, for the simple reason that the students wanted to learn English, not English language, which is a means to understand the socio-economic `ins and outs` of a system loosely definable as `black English`. In Hungary, researcher Gabor Halász described how a system of primary and secondary education might consider aspects of the `black`, or `second economy`, if it wasn`t for the problem of elitism. A student's entrance into Eastern Europe`s secondary, or Gimnázium education, rather than vocational training, was 'high risk' because, although success might open the door to higher education, failure brought the gloomy prospect of struggling for survival in a labor-market without qualifications, that is, a loss of potential to satisfy the hunger of/for what has always been understood as `higher education`. In other words, although elitism encouraged upward ascent through education, the `black economy`, for which a knowledge of `black English` was indicated, both for native speakers and foreigners, wasn`t a `poverty trap`, whereas falling into the trap of seeking higher education, like the monied classes, but without the possibility of obtaining better prospects through nepotism, and `the old school tie` of private secondary education, etc., was.
US` cognitive scientist, Noam Chomsky, `the father of modern linguistics`, observed that the question was always, `What can we understand?`1 Results of surveys on learning achievements called attention to the need for greater 'evaluation and monitoring', as Dr Halász`s research suggests, so the appropriateness of what was taught could be examined, that is, society`s requirements, which mightn`t be so orthodox as educationists`, or those of native English speakers in the foreign language laboratories abroad. For cognitive science, human activity was based on memory and recognition, rather than learning, that is, remembering things, places and people, were at least as important as education and/or the training needed to pursue a profession or trade. For foreign students, the objective was to know and remember the lingua franca of the `black economy` of English speaking nations, that is, a knowledge that the orthodox native English speaker mightn`t be qualified to impart, and so was deemed unsatisfactory or inadequate because of his/her seeming reluctance to `fess up in the course of the students` interrogations over the meanings associated with the various idiomatic traditional `sayings`, proverbs, nursery rhymes inculcated in primary school, and `old wives` tales`; for example, the traditional folk song, `Pop! Goes the weasel` (1853), was originally transmitted orally as what the people were able to communicate through succeeding generations on the theme of surviving dispossession:
`Up and down the city road,
In and out the Eagle;
That’s the way the money goes:
Pop! Goes the weasel.`2
Drinking alcohol in the public houses in London; like `the Eagle`, costs money and, although it isn`t advisable, if the drinker wants to continue, they can take their coat, that is, `the weasel`,3 to the pawn shop, and that`s minimalized `black English` survival knowledge, which is that, if he/she wants to live in England, any student of the `black economy` might find it useful to learn what `popping a stoat` is, so as to avoid it. In Halász`s research, Hungary`s 'second economy'4 competed with education as a means of `social ascent`. In any system, where it`s attractive to avoid payment, people haven`t incentive to contribute. Because education and the economy is symbiotic, people support it and, in return, society benefits. As those in the `black economy` can`t contribute, so examining their role has become a societal taboo preventing the dissemination of `black English` so that a more realistic understanding of socio-economics was discernible for learners. Halász`s research in Hungary emphasized `training for work`, so `What can we understand?` For an orthodox English language teacher, it was evident that those who work in the 'black economy' correspond to necessity, or they wouldn`t have that role. The solution was for educators and economists to be incorporative with regard to training, and what works. Consequently, foreign English language teacher employers in Hungary and elsewhere wanted memoried `black English` trainers.
Many native English speaking teachers don`t comprehend the dissatisfaction among students in the classroom when what they`re doing should be acceptable from the perspective of what they`ve been taught to teach, and their fulfilling of that requirement. It`s because they`re not supplying the students with enough `black English` to satisfy either their employers at home, or foreign employers, and/or their students. For the wealthy, education and economy is incidental, which means that those for whom it isn`t an ancillary activity are either `black workers`, or deluded into believing that official education affords a step beyond death, and taxis on the runway preparing for a takeoff that isn`t going to be. For most ELT professionals, that`s where they are, which makes it difficult to satisfy the thirst among foreigners for that `black English` which they anticipate will confer that less orthodox means of upward mobility in English speaking countries commonly envisioned by them.
As Halász has written, `After WWII, secondary education was seen by the ruling political forces as an influential tool to transform the mind and composition of society`. Of course, those forces were Russian and communist, which meant that the `black` or `second economy` in Hungary, as in all of the other `satellite` Eastern European nations under the sway of the Russian `soviet` system, became a strong alternative rivalling the success and importance of the `first economy`. After the beginning of the ostensible withdrawal of communist Russia from Eastern Europe in the late 1980s, a different `class of 'go-ahead' people with driving ambition` were wanted from Eastern Europe`s education systems. For the West, Europe`s 'second economy' was represented by `that rugged entrepeneurial spirit of individualism familiar to us from US` television programs such as Dallas,`5 (Usher, R. p. 550) that is, `ruthlessness of character` displayed by Texan, J. R. Ewing, `I wouldn’t give you the dust off my car.`6
Without `a Darwinesque ' survival of the fittest' environment, as English poet laureate, Alfred Lord Tennyson, observed, 'red in tooth and claw,' that is, one in which the many are preyed upon/exploited by the few` (p. 551), rather than have eternal youth conferred upon them by advanced medical science, there`d be no death and taxiing on the fashionable runways of the clothing industry, before the partially clad models took off again in quest of a permanent home to relinquish, when the estate agent, in his role as `grim reaper` after the murder, came to put the house on the market again; to ensure a fresh influx of new models looking for taxis: so they could `runway` and try to avoid being reaped.
The realism of Eastern Europe`s `second` or `black economy` might have provided a less cutthroat and more tolerant atmosphere. Conducive to a more genuinely healthy and universal upward mobility, the incorporation of the `black` economies of formerly occupied Europe, independent of the soviet `satellite` system of client nations, was preferable to its being grimly reaped. Successfully incorporated within the `first economy`, that is, `nationalized`, the `second economies` of Eastern Europe could have resulted in a more generally successful life for the economy of Europe.
What many English language learners in Eastern Europe and elsewhere wanted to know from their teacher was how to survive in England`s (America`s, Canada`s, etc.) `black economy` with their knowledge of English language, which required from the ELT professional some personal knowledge of `black English`. Otherwise, the teacher was inadequate from the perspective of the foreign learner, which placed the educator in a difficult position, `What can we understand?` Or even, what are we allowed to teach of what we know?
Hungary has `a powerful sense of community, according to Halász`s researches, that is, a feeling of solidarity or togetherness`, and `which seemed to contain the memories of generations.` (p. 551) Those memories that existed, because of differences in education, wealth and status, contributed to the establishment of communism; after Hungary`s support for Germany in WWI and II resulted in successive defeats. To retain memoried `social co-operation`, `the work of the Hungarian Institute for Educational Research (HIER), in exploring the 'hidden curriculum' in the classroom`, was invaluable in perceiving `a humanitarian ethos behind what was taught`:
`Behind what is taught is the way that it is taught, which suggests that (overtly not covertly - once we're conscious of how the 'hidden curriculum' operates then there's no need to hide our use of that knowledge) we can inculcate a value system of a humanitarian type into our students, which will offset the problems associated with that 'too rugged' approach we often see in the less-than-caring face of Western Europe and elsewhere.` (p. 551)
Part of the `hidden curricula` is that, as a German, Karl Marx, devised communism. As Hungary`s support for Germany in WWI and II effectively resulted in success for German communism, so the memoried `black educated` were better equipped to teach. As incorporators, the role of economists and educators was to combine humanism with dynamism. The role of the creative economist and educator was innovative which, as Halász argued, was a legislated possibility. Though public financing was an indirect means of steering, it included `black education` based on the requirements of private wealth, and directives associated with core curricula were the symptoms of that, which caused native English language teachers, who weren`t cognizant of `black`, difficulties.
Monied people were `black` insofar as they were paying for a teacher to cater to their particular taste which, to a greater or lesser extent, meant interactions that were social, rather than language learning oriented. As native English speakers, particularly in England, were trained to abjure relationships with students, because of concerns about employing pedophiles, teachers of adults weren`t trained to `think black` overseas and provide extra-linguistic tuition to business people. Of course, if they attempted to, and failed, because they`d only been trained to teach English language, they ran the risk of being pulled up for extra-linguistic `black English` activities that weren`t on the curricula. In that `no win` situation genuine opportunities for intercultural discourse, and constructive exchanges conducive to progress, were dammed.
Although there was a need for a spirit of 'creative individualism' among students to 'think for themselves', Universities in Eastern Europe and elsewhere had been used to producing memorizers that regurgitate, `later when required` (p. 550), or rote learn someone else`s analysis and regurgitate that, because the spirit of the memoried `black educated` was realistically pragmatic, rather than hidebound. Consequently, native English language speakers would be expected to have `savvy` to contribute from their own country`s linguistic development in order to be able to practice the `communicative method`; or indeed any other.
Linguistic analysis requires imagination, so it`s the essence of creativity in the language laboratory; especially with advanced levels. Apart from the business expertise met with by the native English language speaker and teacher, and therefore the necessity for a knowledge of Business English, innovativeness is the sine qua non of teaching language as well as in economic success in capitalism, which was the socio-economic rival to the spread of German philosopher Karl Marx`s communism, originating with his Das Kapital (1868), and adopted by Russia after the October 1917 Revolution subsequent to defeat in war against Germany. With some knowledge of these historical determinants, the ELT professional could have learned `black abroad`, but the price was reciprocity, and so the native English speaker teaching `business` terms faced embarrassment at proving to be insufficient in terms of his/her capacity to satisfy or, as North Americans colloquially say, `put out`, because they`ve only been taught/trained to impart `first economy` vocabulary and orthodox terms to satisfy examiners at home, and that`s actually a disability in practical terms when teaching in foreign climes.
Although the German Empire ultimately lost its First World War (1914-18), its Second World War (1939-45) resulted in the Russians implementing Soviet Communism, that is, the Marxist ideology of `workers controlling the means of production`, rather than capitalist entrepreneurs, after capturing the German capital, Berlin, and taking control of Eastern Europe. Just as that showed Marx to be a stronger German than either WWI`s Kaiser Wilhelm II, or WWII`s Chancellor Adolf Hitler, so it suggested that memoried `black` education was more realistic, because it accounted for actual historical circumstances, which were needful for an advanced exponent of English language teaching abroad to perceive; so as to be adequately meaningful. Money, as Halász`s research in Hungary shows, shifted the emphasis away from according importance to entrance exams, because the wealthy wanted to have better things to remember their time with. That accorded with the thinking of the new German capital in Bonn, which had seen the emergence of its communist economic philosopher, Karl Marx, as the world`s capital mesmerist; in contradistinction to the generally held belief that English language was the lingua franca of the Earth`s peoples: what the world hadn`t learnt was `black German`.
In the major capitalist societies conditions were created for students to use their imaginations, rather than rely on memory, that is, the German, or `Prussian method`, of `rote learning`, which was the essence of communism; for example, `the state owned the means of production, because it was the workers`, is a logical sorite, but nonsensical. From a `black education` perspective, a more realistic statement is, `The state owns the workers.` As Karl Marx was a German economist, so Russian economics was conceivably `black German` and, trained in the orthodoxy of ELT communications, native English language speaking teachers in Eastern Europe and the rest of the world weren`t equipped to understand the exigencies.
The sorite form was made famous by `symbolic logician`, Charles Dodgson, under his pseudonym, Lewis Carrol, in Alice`s Adventures In Wonderland (1865), for example, which was written for children, so those kids knew what he was writing about, whereas the modern world would need a literary analyst, if not a Freudian, to explain, 'I have tasted eggs, certainly,' said Alice, who was a very truthful child; 'but little girls eat eggs quite as much as serpents do, you know.'7 Serpents produce boy sons for which they need eggs, which Alice wasn`t required to respond knowledgeably to. In the same way, English usage of idiom afforded the speaker a tool, whereby others could be kept in ignorance, if they didn`t comprehend, even if they were English language experts. To be aware of that is a part of the English language teaching `hidden curricula` for the native speaker. In global terms, `black` isn`t disseminated in the classroom, because English language teaching is largely a `fictitious England concern`, which is deleterious to the intelligence, and socio-economic well-being of the teacher who, ignorant themselves, need to know `black English` better.
Despite appeals for value for money (VFM) in education, the more prestigious Universities and Colleges at which students receive grants, that is, who`re paid, retained their entrance examinations as an enticement to the slavish, whereas a `choice system` affording self-satisfaction is more encouraging to financial success, which the wealthy elite perhaps mightn`t want for the merely educable. A typical instance of `black English` is `up the apples and pears,` (stairs) where the meaning of the idiom relates to socio-economic upward mobility by means of the meaning attributable to the `identifiers`, that is, the `apples` and `pears`. If those being educated weren`t taught the meaning of the idiom, they`d remain blindly ignorant of the means to upwardly ascend in `black` socio-economic terms, which was in the interests of those in the `first economy` who didn`t want the educable to see how, whereas `black English` for those in Europe`s `second economy` would doubtless be invaluable and so, for the euphemistically blind native English speaking teacher, education and training in the imparting of such vision, that is, the meaning of the idiomatic usage of `apples` and `pears` identifiers, for example, is what their equally metaphorically blind foreign students want.
A sign and symptom of English language students` dissatisfaction with their native English speaking teacher was that they wanted to learn `idiom`, that is, the local `black English` colloquialisms and vernacular necessary for entry into basic European Union economics; for instance. Failure to know that English idiom was the essence of `black English` likely resulted in the teacher`s being disquieted at seeming unrest among students. Arriving wanting to know how to get ahead, which for many constituted a `black` system of flattery and evasion, foreign students of English language rather expected something akin to a description of the rules for Mokshapat,8 originally devised by the ancient Indians in the subcontinent for the education of their children, that is, `snakes and ladders`, or how to see to go up, and how to avoid being blinded, so as not to be led astray, and `downed` after takeoff on the runway; attempting to escape from death and taxis.
1 Chomsky, Noam, `What can we understand?`, Lecture 2, Columbia University, New York city, N.Y., Manhattan, 530 West 120th Street, Schapiro Center, Davis Auditorium, 4th Floor, 6.15 p.m. - 8.15 p.m., Thursday, December 5th, 2013.
2 `Pop! Goes the Weasel`, 1853, Roud Folk Song Index # 5249.
3 Weasel is derived from `weasel and stoat`, which is `Cockney rhyming slang`, that is, `black English`, for those born within the sound of the bells of St-Mary-le-Bow church in Cheapside, London, https://www.rhymes.org.uk/a116a-pop-goes-the-weasel.htm .
4 Halász, Gabor, `Changes in the Management and Financing of Educational Systems`, European Journal of Education, Vol. 31, 1, 1996, pp. 57-71.
5 Usher, R. L., 'Learning to Study' in Educatio; Quarterly Review of Social Sciences Focused on Education, Hungarian Institute of Educational Research (HIER), Budapest, Autumn 1995, pp. 549-52.
6 Hagman, Larry, as J. R. in Dallas (1978-91), `The Sting`, Season 6, Episode 22, Lorimar, March 11, 1983, # 125.
7 Carroll, Lewis, `Advice From A Caterpillar`, Alice`s Adventures In Wonderland, Chapter 5, 1865.
8 Topsfield, Andrew, `The Indian Game of Snakes and Ladders` in Artibus Asiae, 46, 3, 1985, pp. 203-26.
If You Seek Gamey - A Receptive Skills Based Lesson Focusing on Listening
Although reading is an integral part of the task, because it's a video, with a videoscript chosen for its authenticity, the text is motivational insofar as it pertains to real life`s `stimulating and challenging` (Gower, 1995, p. 88) activities. The rationale for the listening lesson to teach receptive skills is based on a September 23, 2016 internet video report from BBC Newsround, `EGX 2016: What's new at UK's biggest gaming event?` The lesson includes some pre-tasks, and `while listening` tasks, and the video material used in the class appeared some time after a genuine article, `Nearly a quarter of kids see gaming as exercise`, was published on the BBC`s Newsround, on June 23, 2015, which the students were asked to read as a background task. Although `findings suggested that 75% of young people enjoy PE`, 23% thought `playing a computer game with a friend is exercise`, and a report by the UK`s Youth Sports Trust suggests children `risk becoming addicted to their handheld devices`.
As a reading text for the receptive skills` lesson, the teacher gave the students, `EGX 2016: What's new at UK's biggest gaming event?` It was a piece-together handout to encourage use of top down processing, that is, reading for specific details (Aebersold and Field, 1997, p. 15), as well as bottom up processing reading for gist skills. The students were to practice these receptive skills along with listening for gist, that is, to ascertain general meaning (Harmer, J. 2007, p. 311), as well as for specific information (Harmer, J. 2007, p. 314), which required them to carefully attend to the video material, and use the receptive skills of listening and reading to comprehend video, audio, and text.
As a pre-listening activity to help the students demonstrate their use of the schemata they already possess from their background knowledge (Aebersold and Field, p. 8), they were asked to define `game` as a group and so, before discussion amongst them (Thornbury, 2005, p. 3), the teacher elicited opinion to arouse interest and set the scene. The aim wasn`t to focus on accuracy, during the lead in activity, so mistakes weren`t to be focused on, but the aim was instead to create interest motivating the students to listen. Afterwards, to raise and improve students` knowledge of schemata (Nunan, 1998, p. 69), the teacher explained that there are activities thought of as games by gamers, that aren`t, and these are often nevertheless placed within gaming contexts, which dilutes the seriousness of the mistake.
In terms of the schemata deriving from the word `game`, an animal without chance of escaping a determined killer is a game animal, while computer gamers seeking to transfer the game concept to interactional simulations devaluing human life to that of game animals aren`t gaming. Consequently, reading for gist, allied to the application of the schemata associated with game vocabulary (Power, 2016), `cat and mouse` is identifiable as the gamer`s game with humans, whereas human participants voluntarily engage in activities to win competitions, which isn`t a game insofar as success means a better life for those taking part.
The notion that gaming is physical exercise is a part of the game industry`s obfuscating marketing strategy to market the game to game players, where `game` can be interpreted as animal, rather than human, from the perspective of the market, which wants to sell product; not educate it. Although games aren`t ostensibly designed to be life-threatening, and there`s a distinction between game animal and gamer, game schemata associated with boxing, for example, admit debilitation as the aim of the `fight game`. The teacher therefore endeavors to correct students` understanding of the term `game`, that is, physical attacks causing brain impairment aren`t games.
Using simple and clear principles for the initial pre-listening task (Nation, 2005), the teacher explains the `game` vocabulary, but stresses the importance of the receptive skill based task of dictionary consultation for the student, who wants more information about words` meanings. The vocabulary chosen by the teacher for explication is; firming, taste, testing, headset, help out, franchise, check out. The language of the gamer is associative, for example, `firm` is applied to flesh, and `taste` also, although the meaning here is ostensibly related to the filling up of a venue, and the metaphorical fearsomeness of testing a new computer game, rather than tasting a game animal`s cooked meat. Amongst hunters, antlers are a `headset`, and `help out` is a term used in euthanasia, while someone who has `checked out` is dead in movie language. Consequently, the language of the gamer isn`t so playful as might be supposed.
The students are given a task in which they`re required to complete the text with the missing words from the rubric, that is, put the words and number into the spaces to complete the sentences. Although it`s a pre-listening task, the teacher collects and looks at the students papers, and perhaps makes notes, before returning them for the listening task, so that the students can correct their own answers as they listen. The audio introduction to `EGX 2016: What's new at UK's biggest gaming event?` is repeated a few times, so the students can absorb the atmosphere and feel of the material before completing their final version of the receptive task.
Pre-listening and listening task: Reading and listening for gist and detail
busy, show, next, upcoming titles, out, deal, 80, 000
`I'm here at EGX. The UK's biggest gaming is at the NEC and firming up and, as you can see, it's pretty , and expecting around people to come here over the few days. Now, this is a big , because it's the first time many people will get to play some of the big for the first time here in the UK, so I thought I'd help you out by telling you three things to look for.
The teacher then gives the students a bottom up, and top down processing (Aebersold and Field, 1997, p. 18) comprehension task requiring them to apply the receptive skill of watching, and listening for gist, and/or specific detail, to get them to think about games, gamers, and gaming, and apply what they`ve gleaned, and what they already knew, to answering the questions.
Comprehension task: Reading for gist and specific detail
Where is the EGX?
How many people are expected?
Is there a card game metaphor used by the presenter, Steffan Powell?
What are the two words used by Steffan to describe new games to be sold soon in the shops?
What`s a `ukelele`?
What`s the name of the `famous franchise` game?
What company is promoting the new virtual reality machine?
What is it that can take you to all kinds of different worlds?
How many games can you play on that?
What`s the adjective Steffan uses to describe it?
The teacher gets the students to predict (Harmer, p. 337) the content from the video`s title , `EGX 2016: What's new at UK's biggest gaming event?` , before playing the video, which is paused during the students` `while listening task` to give them time to write answers. They`re then given four stills taken from the video to put in order as a prediction based activity (Harmer, p. 346): `... and perhaps make some of the possible utterances themselves.` (Underwood, p. 34) Then, `working together` (Harmer, p. 338), they watch the video to see if they`re correct, and discuss. The teacher cuts up the paragraphs of the videoscript, and gets the students into groups to rearrange the paragraphs into the original sequence. There`s a 2 minute time limit attached to this `while listening activity` to facilitate the students` application of their `listening for gist` and `scanning for detail` audio-receptive and reading receptive skills.
While-listening task: Listening For gist and scanning for detail
Put the paragraphs numbered 1-3 in the correct order after listening
And also there's a small independent game it's called Ukulele. Now you might not have heard much about it, but it's really colorful and really fun. It`s worth taking a look at that as well.
Coming up. So, one of them is just behind me. See, there it is. You can see it's Skylanders Imaginators, which is a new taste on the famous Skylanders franchise. If you like that, then check out that game.
Back here, just over there, they`re testing out the new Playstation virtual reality machine. It`s that headset you put on that can take you off to all sorts of different worlds, you can play loads of different games on that. That`s pretty cool too.
The teacher elicits the students` answers, and explanations for the comprehension given to them, as a way of checking their understanding. The video script is then given as a handout, so the students can examine it as a `problem solving and decision making` task, that is, they discuss errors made in piecing together the cut up text: `To maintain interest it is important not to have exceedingly long and complicated problems to solve, nor decisions where too many factors need to be taken into account.` (Underwood, p. 78) As Mary Underwood says, post-listening activities are often the main purpose of the lesson, so although the post-listening activities mightn`t seem very substantial, it isn`t advisable to overburden the students, so the lesson`s objectives can be smoothly achieved.
Harmer, J. (2007) 19, Listening, 19.5 Listening [and film] sequences, p. 346.
Video transcript: `EGX 2016: What's new at UK's biggest gaming event?`
`I'm here at EGX. The UK's biggest gaming show is at the NEC and firming up and, as you can see, it's pretty busy, and expecting around 80,000 people to come here over the next few days.
Now, this is a big deal, because it's the first time many people will get to play some of the big upcoming titles for the first time here in the UK, so I thought I'd help you out by telling you three things to look out for.
Coming up. So, one of them is just behind me. See, there it is. You can see it's Skylanders Imaginators, which is a new taste on the famous Skylanders franchise. If you like that, then check out that game.
Back here, just over there, they`re testing out the new Playstation virtual reality machine. It`s that headset you put on that can take you off to all sorts of different worlds, you can play loads of different games on that. That`s pretty cool too.
And also there's a small independent game it's called Ukulele. Now you might not have heard much about it, but it's really colorful and really fun. It`s worth taking a look at that as well.`
Comprehension task: Reading for gist and specific detail
Aebersold, J. A., and Field, M. L. From Reader To Reading Teacher: Issues And Strategies For Second Language Classrooms, New York, Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Gower, Roger, Diane Phillips, and Steve Walters Teaching Practice Handbook, London, Heinemann, 1995.
Harmer, J. The Practice Of English Language Teaching, Harlow, Pearson Education Limited, 2007.
Nation, Paul, I. S. `Teaching Vocabulary` in EFL Asian Journal, September, Vol. 7, 3, pp. 47-54, 2005.
`Nearly a quarter of kids see gaming as exercise`, BBC Newsround, June 23, 2015, https://www.bbc.co.uk/newsround/33240073 .
Nunan, David `Schema Theory And Reading, 4.3`, Language Teaching Methodology, pp. 67-9, 1998.
Powell, Steffan `EGX 2016: What's new at UK's biggest gaming event?` BBC Newsround, September 23, 2016, https://www.bbc.co.uk/newsround/37448787 .
Power, Ted, `B. Skimming`, https://www.tedpower.co.uk/esl1108.html , 2016.
Thornbury, S. How To Teach Speaking, Harlow, Pearson Education Limited, 2005.
Underwood, Mary Teaching Listening, London, Longman, 1989.
A Game Sport
The 15 male adult class of intermediate level Asian students sent by a government college for people living and working in Saudi Arabia to a language school there to improve their English language usage, so that they have a common means of communication to use in their mutual dealings, are now to look at a video after completing a comprehension based on the video transcript, which appeared alongside an article, `The row over what counts as sport`, on the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) Newsround webpage,
https://www.bbc.co.uk/newsround/34325289 , on September 22, 2015. They`ve said that they`d like to see the images that go with the text, and English sport is a favorite with them. To cater to the class interest in the subject, after watching the video together, `The row over what counts as sport`, there`s going to be a class discussion (Harmer, 2007, p. 358). Because it`s a Saudi group, there`s a co-teacher with this class because `collaborative teaching` (Abdallah, 2009) is felt to be useful in `second language acquisition`, where meaning is often a process of negotiation, rather than a given, so the students have another video and audio with the collaborating teacher. `The row over what counts as sport` url is given to the students on a handout, so they can watch it again at home, `Or if you`ve brought your own smart `phones, and laptops, etc., it`s been sent by e-mail.` After this announcement, the video is watched with its imagery relating to the problems associated with defining card games like bridge, or games such as chess, as sports.
The students are advised that there`ll be a task on the material and they should prepare by carefully attending to the audio and video component of the news item with the object of discussing some aspect of what they`ve seen and heard. Afterwards, the discussion is initiated by posing to the students the question: `Is flying model aircraft a sport?` If so, `What other activities are there that you would consider to be a sport, while others mightn`t think so?` Adhering to `simple and clear` principles (Nation, 2005, p. 47), it`s explained to the students that there`re important vocabulary words and especial phrases they`ll need to know for the task. The teacher reintroduces some lexis, which is revision, and so begins to employ the communicative language teaching (CLT) method, which is based on the teacher`s knowledge (Al-Issa, 2005, p. 104) and appreciation of the level of English arrived at by the class. The teacher deploys what the students need to learn in order to advance in `communicative competence` (Kasper, 1997, p. 345), which is what the Saudi employers want, `I think that ...`, `In my opinion ...`, `I disagree with ...`, `I agree with ...`, and the importance of the linking word, `but`, that is, `problem`, so that the students can make sentences like: `I think that .... so I disagree with .... but I agree with ... and so, in my opinion, flying model aircraft is a sport.` The teacher uses Smart Board technology, or whatever is available to write something on for the students, so that they can refer to the lexis introduced in their discussion, and elicits understanding from the students by means of Q and A (Usher, R. L. 2012), for example, `Is it your opinion that horse riding is a sport?` and `Would you agree that hunting is a sport?`
After checking the students` understanding of the lexis, the teacher affords the students the opportunity to engage in a structured discussion of what constitutes a sport. A student is chosen to explain why it is that they believe their activity is a sport. Guided by the teacher, the students are encouraged to agree or disagree, and say why they do. After all the students have submitted their activity as a sport and the reasons have been given, the criteria for what constitutes a sport are reexamined to assist the students with an upcoming `creative writing` task (Harmer, 2007, p. 325), that is, `sport` isn`t `game` in the sense of hunting, and activities that are only games aren`t sports, so what is the essence of sport? The teacher offers `skill` as the solution to how to distinguish between sports and games, while killing isn`t understood as `sport`, because for hunters the terminology `sport` and `game` are transposable, that is, `sport` means `game` (Usher, R. L. 2013), which is a way of saying that killing is a game, whereas it isn`t, and the skill employed in killing isn`t that of a sports` personality, although movies like The Deer Hunter (1978) starring actor, Robert De Niro, for example, about a hunter in the United States of America, who becomes a sniper in wartime, present killing as a skill, which tempts the audience to perceive it as a game and a sport.
Using this definition, the students are asked to build a `word family table` (Nation, 2005, p. 51) with the following headings; Sports, Games, and Sport, Game, which affords them the opportunity of distinguishing between competitive activities that are physical and mental, that is, Sports and Games, and also distinguish between the activity of hunting and the hunted. What hunters label `Sport` and `Game` is the degree of difficulty posed by the `kill`, which receives the appellation `Sport` from the hunter, while the hunted is called `Game` by the hunter. Consequently, the students are asked to observe the difference between computer `Games`, and killing, which isn`t a game or a sport, and neither is PC gaming. The teacher writes some words under the headings on the board to help the students write their own words. Under `Sports` the teacher writes, `football`, and `hockey` with a brief explanation of the kicking a ball into a net activity engaged in by two teams of twenty two players, and the same idea using a `hockey stick`. Under Games the teacher writes `Snakes and Ladders` with the explanation that a player goes up ladders and down snakes in the board game requiring a positional marker to indicate the number of squares travelled based on the throwing of a dice and consulting the number on the uppermost square of the cube to guide each player`s steps. Under `Snakes and Ladders` the teacher writes `Super Mario` and explains that the once very popular `PC computer game` requires the player to use skill with the computer controls to help the character overcome obstacles to win the game. Those are the legitimate human activities.
Under `Sport` the teacher writes, `Bear Baiting`, and explains it as an activity in which bears are tormented, and then killed for being vicious, and `Pit Bull`, which is an activity in which terrier dogs are bred to be baited like bears; until they fight each other and sometimes die from their injuries, while people bet on which pit bull terrier will win. Under `Game` the teacher writes `Deer` and `Rabbit` with the explanation that people eat them, that is, the distinction between a `game` animal, and an animal as `sport`, is torture. Although sometimes an individual who is repeatedly attacked, because they refuse to submit to the tormentative criminal is defined as `being game`, that is, unable to escape but unwilling to give up. Although hunters might argue that the term `game` means an animal that inspires the skill of the killer, animals that are a food resource for humans are most often bred by farmers, while `game` animals are the hunters` excuse for killing, while pretending it`s a `game of skill` equivalent to cards or chess in which they have an opponent. However, `Bear Baiting` and `Pit Bull` are more indicative of the truth, which is that killers like to torture their victims. Hunting humans is all the same to the killer, which is what the Robert De Niro movie, The Deer Hunter, is about, in which he has the role of Mike Vronsky, a soldier in Vietnam killing `gooks`, that is, Vietnamese, during the US` Vietnam war before the fall of Saigon in 1975. The teacher explains that `gooks` is a dehumanizing term, that is, a way of making the humans seem like animals to the killers, because that`s what killers do, so they should be careful of the usage of the terms `game` and `sport` when speaking with people, because not everyone is a good person.
Using the principles associated with `guided writing` (Scrivener, p. 236), the teacher asks the students to write a letter of protest as a `lobbyist` and explains; approach `lobby` as a group of people that are against something, rather than supportive of it. They can work in groups or alone and write a short protest letter saying that they believe that `blood sports`, for example, `Bear Baiting`, `Deer Hunting`, and `Pit Bull` fighting are cruel. Either a single `blood sport`, or `blood sports` (pl.) should be the subject of their letter, which of course requires special lexis, that is, it begins with `Dear ..,` while the address of the sender is in the top right corner, above the introductory indented sentence, with the name and title of the person to whom its addressed following `Dear` .., and the letter ends with `Yours Faithfully`, rather than `Yours Sincerely`, which is for personal letters to people you known well. A single paragraph is sufficient, although students are encouraged to write two or three. The teacher writes the template for the letter on the board or gives it to them as a handout and a `gap fill exercise` in which some parts of the letter have to be completed by the students; for example, the name and address of the addressee, and the address of the sender.
The suggested vocabulary to be used is, think/don`t think, and like/don`t like; for example, `I don`t think that bear baiting is a sport, and it is cruel to make a game out of killing a bear, because so-called `game` animals are humanely killed by hungry people, so the idea of `sport` being killing as a `game` is a perversion based on other people`s hunger, who would see bear baiting as a mockery of their condition.` Having got the students thinking, the teacher leaves them alone to `brainstorm` ideas and write their letters. When they have a `plan`, the letters can be written from the `ideas generated`. The teacher encourages the students to demand answers to the questions they raise in their letters, as a part of the `process writing` (White R & V Arndt, 1991) task, and gives some personal help with the editing. The teacher collects the letters to read (Scrivener, 2007, p. 236, fig. 9) and correct, and then leads the class on a discussion of human and animal rights. Although `rights` can refer to ownership, that is, farmers` `rights`, rights can also be used to mean what people are allowed; for example, they don`t have the right to kill their neighbor. Although they do have the right to buy food, because it`s a basic `human right`, it`s a human right not to be associated with torture, because humans don`t like it. On that note, the teacher concludes the lesson.
Language Knowledge on ESL Policy Implementation with Special Reference to the Omani Context’, EFL Asian Journal, September, Vol. 7, 3, pp. 98-112, p. 104.
Harmer, J. (2007) B1 `Process And Product` in B `Approaches to Student Writing`, The Practice of English Language Teaching, Harlow Pearson Education Limited, p. 325.
Kasper, G. (1997). `Beyond reference` in G. Kasper & E. Kellerman (eds.) Communication strategies, Harlow: Longman, pp. 345-360, p. 345.Nation, Paul, I. S. (2005) `Teaching Vocabulary`, EFL Asian Journal, September, Vol. 7, 3, pp. 47-54, p. 47.
Nation, Paul, I. S. (2005) `Building Word Family Tables` in `Teaching Vocabulary`, EFL Asian Journal, September, Vol. 7, 3, pp. 51.
Scrivener, Jim (2011) `Teaching The Skill Of Writing` in Chapter 9, `Productive Skills: Speaking and Writing`, Learning Teaching: The Essential Guide To English Language Teaching, Third Edition, p. 236.
Thornbury, S. (2005) How To Teach Speaking, Harlow, Pearson Education Limited.
Usher, R. L. (2012) `Accuracy and Fluency`, Humanizing Language Teaching, Vol. 14, 2, April, https://hltmag.co.uk/apr12/sart04.htm .
Usher, R. L. (2013) `Teaching English Vocabulary`, HLT, Vol. 15, 5, December, https://www.hltmag.co.uk/dec13/sart09.htm .
White R & V Arndt (1991) Process Writing, Longman, London.
The teenage class is a general International English Language Testing System group of upper intermediate level students who want to achieve 6.5 band IELTS to get into a European University, where they`ll study English literature, and so they need to be prepared for the IELTS examination. They`ve said that they`d like to study English literature, and the series of novels and movie franchise featuring the hero, a wizard at Hogwarts` school in the popular stories authored by the woman, J. K. Rowling, has been a favorite with them. To cater to the class interest in the subject, material has to be prepared in a special way to suit their purpose. Consequently, it`s an ESP (English for Special Purposes) lesson with a view to helping the six students` IELTS preparation course, and the news story of August 12, 2015, featuring the British Broadcasting Corporation`s (BBC`s) online video, `Harry Potter: The man who discovered a publishing phenomenon`, has been chosen subsequent to surfing the net.
First the class is invited to assist the teacher to use the schoolroom`s computer, through the smart board screen, while the teacher applies the mouse and cursor to find an appropriate theme from the world wide web. Fortuitously, the subject matter appears in the menu, after the search engine has been programed to find subjects relating to the BBC and Potter amongst the plethora of url related hypertext. The subject material, a Witness broadcast by the BBC World Service primarily for radio listeners, is selected by the teacher as being the most appropriate. The teacher has an already prepared explanation supporting their choice, which they`ve prepared; quoting from the BBC news magazine website: `The Harry Potter series has sold 450 million copies worldwide to date. But before the first book was published, numerous publishers had turned the first book down. Barry Cunningham was the man who decided to take a gamble on J.K. Rowling after he and his daughter became enchanted by the story. The quote is from the BBC news magazine website of August 12, 2015, and it`s interesting because it provides some explanation of the workings of the publishing industry and why one book is chosen over another for publication, so it`s going to be the subject of this day`s lesson.`
`I`d like you to watch the video `Harry Potter: The man who discovered a publishing phenomenon` at this url; if you`ve brought your own smart `phones, and laptops, etc.` After this announcement, the teacher hands a sheet of paper with the url written on it for the students, so that they can continue their research at home, or in the school library, and through their smart `phones now, or on their laptops etc., that is, whatever they have to help them; such as the more affordable internet cafes, https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-33791582 . They`re then provided with the following basic information, which is that the first Potter novel, The Philosopher`s Stone, a movie they might enjoy, was written by Rowling and published in 1997. The actor in the bespectacled role of schoolboy wizard, Harry, was 11 years old Daniel Radcliffe, and his sometime would-be girlfriend, 11 years old enchantress, Hermione Granger, that is, actress Emma Watson, who was in the role over the eight fantasy genre productions of the British-American series of movies distributed by Warner Bros., which began with Harry Potter and The Philosopher`s Stone (2001), and ostensibly culminated with Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 2 (2011), although revivals and remakes are always possible in Hollywood, Los Angeles, the capital city of the filmworld. Giving the students the task of watching the video attached to the BBC news magazine report on the novel`s publishing and the franchise`s progress, the teacher advises them that there`ll be a task on the material and they should prepare using the audio and video component of the news item.
Adhering to `simple and clear` principles (Nation, 2005, p. 47), it`s explained to the students that there`re important vocabulary words and especial phrases they`ll need to know for the task, which is about the publishing and movie industry following their review of the audio and video material. The words are: manuscript, gripped, haggled, significant, purchase, ringing, agent, editorial, sequel, feedback, critical, phenomenon, rights, and Beatlemania. The teacher explains that `manuscript` is a text that a writer has written, and in this context it`s the J. K. Rowling novel, Harry Potter and The Philosopher`s Stone, and that the movie script for the making of the film was also a manuscript. Although the word `gripped` relates to holding something firmly in the hand, here it derives from the horror genre in which audiences are described as gripped with fear, that is, too terrified to move from their seats, or held in their seats by interest in the action because it is suspenseful, that is, they don`t want to leave their seats because of how interesting things are on screen. The word `haggled` means to determine the value of goods, that is, the `purchase` price, by discussion, and a `significant purchase` means an important buy. The teacher uses the smart board, or whatever is available to describe the meaning of the new vocabulary words, and elicits understanding from the students by means of Q and A (Usher, R. L. 2012), for example, `Have you ever been gripped by a film, so you can`t leave your seat?`
The teacher goes on to explain that old `phones had bells inside them which rang, and so `ringing` is used sometimes to indicate a `phone call, although the name of the inventor of the telephone, Alexander Graham Bell, is another reason. An `agent` is someone who represents someone else`s interests, and is used in the filmworld to indicate the person who represents the interests of the manuscript writer, or actor, for example, and `editorial` derives from `editor` and is used to describe the activities that are within the editor`s purview, although `editorial` is sometimes used to denote a text written by the editor to set the tone for a publication in which there are many contributors and contributions to the theme of the published work. Subsequent Potter novels and movies are `sequels`, and the popular Star Wars franchise, which began paradoxically with Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope (1977), is an instance of `sequels`.
Response to a work is `feedback` and `critical` is the word often used mistakenly for `crucial`, whereas it means interpretation of the content, usually by professionals, which is why critics and criticism are valued, because the aim is to assist the several producers of the product to improve. A `phenomenon` is anything that is apparent, that is, it`s phenomenologically present to the senses of the perceiver, although it`s often used erroneously with `phenomenal`, that is, an astonishing phenomenon, for example, the `Potter phenomenon` with its phenomenal success. Although `rights` refer to ownership, that is, of the Potter `brand` or product, `rights` can also be used to mean what people are allowed, for example, they don`t have the right to kill their neighbor, although they do have the right to buy food, because it`s a basic `human right`. `Beatlemania` was used to describe the phenomenon associated with the appearances of the 1960s pop group, The Beatles, when girls screamed and fainted at pop music concert venues as well as at airports and outside hotels, where the singing stars, who were guitarists John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison, and Ringo Starr, the drummer, were reportedly staying.
‘The `special phrases`, which have particular meanings in English are explained to the students as follows; `the story started` means the events that are being related began, `turned down` means to reject or simply say `no`, and is often used to mean a girl or woman`s rejecting a boy or man`s appeal. If someone is `moved`, they`re emotional, so `moved me` means that Barry Cunningham, the publisher, was emotionally impressed by the friendship between the children at Hogwarts in the Rowling novel, Harry Potter and The Philosopher`s Stone. To `tear it off` means to take away from with rude force. If someone uses the phrase, `never would have guessed` it means that they wouldn`t have known if it hadn`t happened to them personally. When Barry `rang her up`, it`s a bell-ringing association, that is, old `phones had bells, but church bells were rung with ropes and called congregations to church on Sundays, so the people were `rung up`, and the phrase became idiomatic, that is, useful, but not understandable to children outside of the framework of common usage (Usher, R. L. 2012); unless they`re taught the original meaning.
Those who`re `lost for words` are astonished, so unable to speak, and `invited her down` relates to the fact that London is the capital city in England of which Soho is a part and, because it`s in the Southernmost part, London is `down` from everything above it, which is `up North`. The idea of the idiomatic term `gold mine` is anything that produces success, which is what J.K. Rowling was for Barry. `Don`t give up your day job,` is a common derision applied to budding writers, that is, if you don`t have a proper job, you`ll starve, because you`re a poor writer. Presentations are often met with the observation that it`s `going down very well`, which is English idiom associable with swallowing, that is, the people are believing the presenter, so the presentation is like food and drink to them. A `fairy tale` is a Western genre associated with mythical and fabulous creatures, and it`s distinguishable from Eastern traditions, for example, the 8th century collection of stories, 1001 Nights, in which there are genies, which don`t usually feature in Western tales.
The teacher asks the students to present a critique of something of their own choice, and they can discuss the topic of their criticism with the others as well as the teacher if required, who will elicit from them the subject of their critique. The teacher reads what the students have written at the end of the class and offers constructive criticism of their use of English vocabulary and idiom with the aim of improving their usage. Of course the terms `critique` and `constructive criticism` are pre-taught before the students write.
Nation, Paul, I. S. (2005) `Teaching Vocabulary`, EFL Asian Journal, September, Vol. 7, 3, pp. 47-54.
Usher, R. L. (2012) `Accuracy and Fluency`, Humanizing Language Teaching, Vol. 14, 2, April 2012, https://hltmag.co.uk/apr12/sart04.htm.
Metaphors in a Selection of Course Books
To improve teacher-student approaches towards their course book selection, students can be asked to participate in a survey with a questionnaire to be completed, and a focus group selected to take part in an in-depth probe into understanding the relations between students` metaphors and the course books they study, which could mean teacher-student interviews. Such a survey could centre upon a single main question, `A course book is like a library because ... ` (Dündar and Şimşek, p. 591) The students would then be asked to write as much as they can using their own choice of metaphor to effect `stem-completion` (Marchant, G. 1992) of the imagery that suggests itself to them. After analysis by the teacher-researcher, a number of students could then be asked to participate in an investigative focus group, where it is hoped that more will be discovered on the subject of student metaphors and how they `may express the meaning more concisely` (Cortazi and Jin, p. 161) to impact and have an influence upon how teachers choose coursebooks: `What metaphorical images do students have of their course books? Do these metaphors have an influence/impact on their attitudes to learning; and, if so, how?
Literature reviews reveal the main findings in this area, which as Dündar and Şimşek succinctly observe, relate to `content, design and learner expectations` (p. 586). In his article, `Teachers’ And Learners’ Images For Coursebooks` (2006), Ian McGrath examines teachers` and students` metaphors and similes in relation to the choosing of course books, and recommends that teachers should develop professionally from a comparison of learners` attitudes through metaphor with the teachers` own metaphors. Gregory Marchant`s survey of 102 undergraduate students and 104 experienced teachers (p. 34), on a teacher preparation program at an unnamed Midwestern University in the United States of America, discovered that similes for teachers were `animal trainers`, and for students, `wild animals`, while classrooms were `jungles`. Scott Thornbury suggests that such ‘persistent and persuasive metaphors’ with a ‘degenerate effect on conceptualizing, inhibiting the development of fresh insights’ (p. 195) should be `surfaced and examined` to prevent their `influence`.
Ian McGrath`s study, which involved a survey of 75 mainly secondary school teachers in Hong Kong, China, and several hundred schoolchildren, subdivided metaphors into four kinds, roughly indicative of a separation between teachers` perception of course books and students`; support, guidance, constraint and resource (Dündar and Şimşek`s `library` metaphor; for example). Apart from the quaintness of the culturally-specific, for example; the need for a `sauce to make chickens’ feet more palatable` (guidance), and the use of `bamboo in scaffolding` (support) as metaphors for the desirability of course book improvement (p. 178), McGrath`s study makes it evident that there`s room for an analysis of the metaphors used by users for textbook designers too.
Esin Dündar and Meliha R. Şimşek`s study of 119 seventh graders in Mersin, Turkey, elicited the students` metaphorical opinion of the Sunshine 7 course book used there since 2014-15, and the negative response to it (52%) suggests that the optimistic title constellated an adverse reaction in the learners commensurate with their perception that, if it`s titled Sunshine 7, it should`ve been much better in terms of accessibility and knowledge affording. S73, for example, `drew a parallel between the dimness of the light radiating from a bulb and the poor performance of the local coursebook in managing the guiding process.` (Dündar and Şimşek, p. 591) A more neutral metaphor for the title, Sunshine 7, might have helped the course book designers` objective in avoiding such negative reactions, although the study of metaphors revealed a language content in Sunshine 7 beyond the learners` proficiency, which reduced the teacher to the role of `curriculum explainer` (p. 593), while demonstrating the use and efficacy of metaphor based research.
Aynur Kesen`s article, `Turkish EFL Learners’ Metaphors With Respect To English Language Coursebooks` (2010), found that, amongst 150 EFL learners studying at Cyprus International University, `language coursebooks are perceived as a planet, foreign country, secret garden, and space`, which is indicative of the `... uncertainty and enigma experienced by the learners.` (p. 108) Her survey was taken within an educational framework in which English language learning is compulsory and where an aim of such research is to ameliorate the burden upon those students for whom second language acquisition isn`t a major ambition, so that they can learn something while others develop a more serious approach to the subject material. Understanding the metaphors students use can be a step towards providing a teaching program that affords an education to everyone participating.
An open worded questionnaire, with a main open question aimed at getting students to use metaphor to describe coursebooks, affords an economical opportunity for the researcher to analyse the imagery in a way fit for the purpose of gleaning information useful to textbook designers while, as Ian McGrath suggests (p. 171), it would allow for `easy comparison of responses too`. A good questionnaire obtains personal details, i.e., age, background, gender, etc., before eliciting a response to the main question, that is, `A coursebook is like a library because ...` Prior to the students` completion of the questionnaire, the concept `metaphor` should be be explained to them. They should be asked to give examples of metaphor from their own understanding of the concept, so as to check comprehension before the survey commences. Concept checking questions could be, after Dündar and Şimşek`s purposed rubric, `My mother is like a flower, because ..,` or `My teacher is like an angel, because ..,` etc. (p. 589), to establish conceptualization. Focus groups of students should explore their metaphors in more depth to gauge their feelings, and probe how these influence/impact on learning. Yıldırım and Şimşek (2011) recommend that qualitative data be quantified so reliability of interpretation will increase.
A content analysis method should be applied to the metaphors uncovered by the teacher-researcher, and a three-step approach after the model of Esin Dündar and Meliha R. Şimşek in their article, `Metaphorical Representations Of A Locally-Produced English Coursebook: Uncovering Learner Beliefs` (2015), is recommendable. 1) All metaphors should be considered (Dündar and Şimşek, p. 590), but those which do not fit into an easily identified category, or are self-evident, should be excluded. 2) Metaphors should be categorized according to McGrath`s four categories; support, guidance, constraint, and resource. 3) Does gender influence metaphor use? Differences in age/nationality/gender should be analysed and compared. In this way a basis for coursebook selection/design is establishable.
Cortazzi, M. and L. Jin ‘Bridges to learning: Metaphors of Teaching, Learning and Language’ in L. Cameron and G. Low (eds.) Researching and Applying Metaphor, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999, pp. 149–76.
Dündar, Esin and Meliha R. Şimşek `Metaphorical Representations Of A Locally-Produced English Coursebook: Uncovering Learner Beliefs` The Journal of International Social Research, Vol. 8, # 40, October 2015, pp. 586-94.
Keysen, Aynur `Turkish EFL Learners’ Metaphors With Respect To English Language Coursebooks` Novitas-ROYAL (Research on Youth and Language), 4 (1), 2010, pp. 108-118.
Lakoff, G. and M. Johnson, Metaphors We Live By, Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 1980.
Marchant, G. J., ‘A teacher is like a . . . Using simile lists to explore personal metaphors’ Language and Education 6/1, 1992, pp. 33–45.
McGrath, Ian `Teachers’ And Learners’ Images For Coursebooks` ELT Journal Volume 60 (2), April 2006, pp. 171-80.
Thornbury, S. ‘Metaphors we work by’. ELT Journal, 45/3, 1991, pp. 193–200.
Yildirim, Ali and Hasan Şimşek, Sosyal Bilimlerde Nitel Araştırma Yöntemleri, Ankara: Seçkin Yayıncılık, 2011.
Invited to Azerbaijan as a teacher trainer with KASPI Liseyi for a month, discovering a simple way of enthusing any class containing students preparing for Cambridge KET, PET or FCE examinations, the method is applicable for any group of learners with an ELT professional to assist. All that`s required is a theme. Usually teachers have a book to work from, so assuming a students` book and/or workbook, which contains some thematic material; for example, `Things In The Bathroom`, ask the class to take a sheet of blank paper, or find an empty page in their notebook, then draw a square somewhere on the board and write START in the center. Join the first square to another and that to a third and so on until you have as many squares connected as you can reasonably allow yourself in the space available. From START you must write in each square that follows therefrom some instruction or rule that affords the students an opportunity to practice their English as they role play, which can be facilitated between two students by each deciding what side of a coin they represent themselves by and tossing it to decide whose turn it is to move, or something resembling a dice, which is in fact available as a `tool` with certain Smart Board software. If a dice is available it facilitates a board game between two and more, otherwise two approaches the maximum that can play with a coin. Explain to the students that they`ll also need a token of some sort to represent themselves as they move about the board, or give them something you`ve already prepared that they can use as a symbol of their personality, before inviting the students to devise their own role play game from whatever material they`re working on from their books, for example, `Things In The Kitchen`.
Imagine my surprise when the normally parsimonious Chinese agreed to pay my airfare to Shanghai and guarantee to return me to pasture when the juice had been squeezed from the orange of my teaching capacities. A rurally idyllic perspective quite in keeping with traditional imagery associated with China, thought I, emboldened by remembered scenes of pop music diva Madonna and erstwhile beau, actor Sean Penn, careering through the streets there inside a rickshaw, while he tried to make sure that the locals didn`t get any mud on her in the film, Shanghai Surprise (1986), and crowds of onlookers held chopsticks and rice bowls romantically against a vast backdrop of grey skies and endless paddy fields receding off into a distance immeasurably quaint.
Arriving at Shanghai airport meant the usual routine in which Mr Johnny English Teacher was assured he`d be picked up at the airport by someone holding a piece of paper with his name written on it, and somewhat overburdened, Johnny English, arrived to discover no one there. As usual, Mr Johnny Teacher`s phone was choc-a-bloc with messages from the local `phone company, China Mobile, advertising the huge benefits of purchasing a new sim card so that the Chinese network would be available to those `foreign devils` desirous of communicating verbally with the communist sponsors` generous tones. Anticipating being collected by the person nominated by the contact, who`d professionally located the operations` center in Buttapes, that is, the converted cupboard with WC installation, proudly called `Bide A Wee`, the ‘phone battery went flat.
Johnny needed a `phone to make overtures to his Chinese captors. Battery flat, how will his flat mate heat water for her shower without electricity? He floundered, drowning in fear at being stuck in Shanghai at a major Chinese airport, without any possibility of speaking with the flat Chinese girls, whether battery powered or not, who`d been the `phones that had invited him to be there. Paralyzed by the `uncertainty principle`, much beloved of physicists like the quantum mechanic Schrödinger, who wanted to establish that a cat could be simultaneously both dead and alive in a box exposed to lethal radiation, the English Johnny went over to the door with the universal sign for `trousered` in order to do some technical research on the existence of electrical sockets from which flat battery `phones could be replenished so that they would give life-giving succor to the auditory system of data processing commonly known as human beings.
Standing inside the convenience, English John observed that the plugs weren`t compatible with the `phone recharging equipment brought from Europe to Asia, and opted for a walk around the Shanghai airport environs outside the plane arrivals` area to locate a charger facility acceptable to the Europhone. Approaching a conveniently positioned `China Mobile` retail area, with the `phone battery recharger, it quickly became established that the `foreign devil`, that is, the John from England, would have to pay for a sim card, and a new `phone with a battery charger compatible with the Europhone communications` technology. Or, could John `Knee` Eng use the plug adaptor inside the unwieldy luggage he was perforce shouldering around the airport like a plumber with a few toilets in his native speaker`s ELT portfolio?
Having discovered that the ATM machines were all in Chinese and so it was impossible to obtain cash to buy a sim card at an airport in China, John Neen `Glish opted to `go native` and, burrowing deeply into his conspicuously black holdall with the Hungriun flag neatly emblazoned strategically at unattractive angles, found a plug adaptor that might conceivably fit the holes in the WC and afford the Europhone an electric boost so that Chaw Ning Lish could `phone his employment opportunity. Soon fully adopted inside the WC with his newly Orientalized face looking back at himself from the mirror above the washbasins while the `phone recharged from the adapted socket and the busyness of the lavatory went on behind his back undisturbed, Shaw Nee Ing Lish `phoned his contact and was assured that he`d be met almost instantly by those who presumably were giggling behind their hands somewhere in the great Shanghai airport concourse.
Standing and moving from place to place by turn, and with no cash for purchasing coffee and donuts, after an hour or so I received a call on the recharged Hungriun `phone ostensibly from Zou, who`d invited me to be there to be picked up by a representative of her company, and who hadn`t materialized when I arrived. Accepting, against my better judgement, that this was in fact Zou, I agreed to go with her to the accommodation supposedly expecting me after a two hour or so journey by Shanghai metro. I was assured that the room was close to a medical center, where I would be established as a non-AIDS carrier. When I looked from the window, I could see another airport. In the morning I passed muster, instead of mustard, and was on my way to a teaching assignment.
Wondering who`d gotten the genuine accommodation that, presumably, had been arranged for the English PhD., and Certificated ELT professional, I travelled from Shanghai by train with a certain degree of trepidation and uneasiness; calmed only by the soothing tones of the MP3 player l always utilized during my excursions in foreign parts. The music invariably carried me along effortlessly ignoring a landscape teeming with muggers, and any murderers who`d seek to waylay the unwary traveler for a pair of headphones and some tunes, and so it was that I was able to journey on unintimidated by those who`d seek to take an Englishman `on the hoof`, as it were, by distracting him with fictional concerns.
Observing from my seat, the huge skyscrapers characterizing the housing estates and, in Chinese terms, small conurbations, before the truly humungous Chinese cities appeared along the route of the train, I understood that the Great Wall of China was the product of a people used to success on a scale more than great. However, when I reached the skull I was to teach at, the water was undrinkable, and the basement apartment was covered in damp, green mold, which began to appear on my clothes, and would remain there until I was able to find a laundry in Turkey’s Istanbul that could remove the fungus from my shirts.
The skull was, of course, the usual internment camp for suspected political dissidents, and espionage agents sent from the United States of America, and the United Kongdome and elsewhere, to speak to Chinese infants, and perhaps uncover secrets relating to the aims and ambitions of `red` China; insofar as those capitalist nations had concerns over these commonests` apparent desire for much bigger and more powerful aircraft carriers than the West. Labeling itself Commonest, `red` China remained true to the concept that `workers control the means of production`, which is what the German classical economist and Marx Brother, Karl Marx, argued in his comical work, Das Kapital, (1867), although China`s initial commonest leader, Mouse Tzedong (Satan), was a proponent of agrarianism, that is, the work of sociaslime began with rural peasantry, while urban conurbations represented the wage slavery of capitalist economics, rather than `ownership of the means of production by the workers`, which was Marxist Commonest, `Say Dong!`
Mouseism was the perception that capitalism was slavery, so the So Feared Commonest of Rusher, which began with the October 1917 Revolution against Rusher`s involvement in the First World War (1914-18) against Imperial Germany`s attempt to enslave Europe and the world, was industrially centered, which resulted in revisionism and the reestablishment of slave economics by dictator, Josie Stalin, for example, before the Second World War to liberate Europe and the world from German Imperialism. However, the desire of the Chinese to build bigger aircraft carriers than the United States of America suggests a revisionist industrial centered Commonest based on host womb slavery in parasitism for war and death. Because the `workers` who `control the means of production` should be women, as civilization, culture and art emerges from their wombs, despite men`s parasitical depredations, which means that the production of huge aircraft carriers from the human species` futanarian womb is subversion by a capitalist revisionism that seeks the extinction of the human race in a form of alien racism imposed upon her by men of the `serpent`s seed` in Satanism.
Naturally, it was difficult to obtain dialectical teaching materials in China, or even adequate directions to the classrooms, where the children were; lest some esoteric Oriental knowledge pertaining to international global security might be placed at risk. Consequently, smart chalk and a blackboard was the advanced technological mode available to the ELT pro, and a wet cloth, which though it wasn`t wet to begin with, could be made damper by recourse to a rusty tap. Pootering along to the WC, which was rapidly becoming the favored port of call for Johnny In Glish, who was by now used to being kept in a state of terror as the technology afforded to the teacher by the locals dwindled to non-existence in their desire to strangle the teacher`s voice, Mr Glish moistened the chalk mark removal equipment.
The teachers` enclave was on the third floor of a three storey building with an `OUT OF ORDER` lift, in Chinese of course, 失灵, to ensure that the educators maintained regime fitness. Although China couldn`t be considered hot, it could be murderously humid, and the providers of liberal Western values, through the medium of New Intochains, perspired enough to fill Liza`s bucket with the hole in it. In Pseudi Yarubeer boxes of tissues are thoughtfully provided by the administrators of the hothouse flowers, but in China the sweaty oik with the TESOL Cert. has to buy their own or drown. Later I`d marvel at the Turks, who`d have me live in Asia and take a ship to Europe where I had to cross a footbridge and climb a mountain in order to locate the language skull of the company I was to ply my trade at each morning around 9.00 am in Istanbul. `Thank God for the old ladies on the footbridge,` I`d chuff, as they proffered cellophane wrapped packs of five or six tissues for less than a Turkish lira (TL) in admiration at the passing of this, their Odysseus:
`To sail beyond the sunset, and the baths
Of all the Western stars, until I die.` 1
`Least said, soonest mended,` I chuffed on, hoping not to expire before my IELTS one to one, and `A stitch in time saves nine billion,` I quoted American science fiction writer, Robert A. Heinlein (1907-88), from his short story `- All You Zombies -` (1959), in the hope that some of the zombies might sew a button on for me. After leaving Buttapes with a 1960s TV 21 magazine Supercar pin holding my suit jacket together, because the plazzy button had shattered into a squizillion pieces at the last instant for no explicable reason, as I switched off the light to put the key in the door to leave my wretched abode, I`d walked the length and breadth of a Qatar airport mall asking for a needle and thread to no avail, and finally after arriving in Dammam I`d taken the buttons off the inside pocket of the suit to sew on as jacket buttons, before the Pseudi passport authorities and the Turkish airline contrived to steal suit and buttons by misappropriating the bag in which they`d been ensconced for my return journey Westward:
`Some work of noble note, may yet be done,
Not unbecoming men that strove with gods.` 2
I taught TOEFL to a group of Turkish residents, straight from Midnight Express (1978), although there were several toe fulls to avoid the morning I endeavored to make it to the ferry at Kidikok in Asian Turkey for the crossing to Bikakok in Turkey, Europe. Despite the labyrinthine expeditiousness of the devil`s toenails, as their eyes snaked along in the paths God had ordained for the Fiat since the outbreak of the First World War, and the invention of Fry`s Turkish Delight (1914), which Michael Jackson and the Jehovah`s Witnesses believe signaled the end of the world, and God`s judgement upon it, the toe fulls weren`t sanguine enough about the safety of their souls at sea with John Knee Inglish, to offer Yours Truly a tow aboard ship:
`A life on the ocean wave,
A-home on the rolling deep!` 3
In China it was metros and trains after Shanghai airport. Being told I`d be picked up followed by the usual rigmarole attending the arrival of the pick up after flying from Buttapes and making it to the coast of Asia opposite California, Los Angeles, I was taken on a three hour metro excursion with the promise of a medical the next day for work visa processing purposes and a train journey of similar duration to Wenjou city in Zheijang province where I`d be picked up. At Harley Street a doctor, doubtless working for Quinn of Marvel`s Suicide Squad, had raised a quibble over a supposed hiatus hernia that cost me a return flight ticket to Buttapes, and my employers in Pseudi Yarubeer close on 1000 GBP, so I was grateful to discover in Paychink, after another nightmare train journey across Asia, and a visit to the local medical center there for more work visa processing, that I was in fact healthy.
I`d had my own medical supplies for nervous exhaustion and blood oxygenation stolen from me at Dammam airport along with the suit, that is, Ferrous Phosphate # 4 and Kali Phosphate # 6 homoeopathic remedies, which cost me upwards of 200 GBP to take with me. They`d been manufactured by Newer Uh laboratories at Marvel Fleet in Kong`s Town Upon ‘Ull, Yorkshire, but the factory had been shut down by David Cameron`s UK government, presumably on the grounds that St Peter thought they were `too good` for humans, who were waking up to what was being done. Having sacked half a million civil servants, whose families like as not were looking to be able to function in some way or other to the probable detriment of the Conservative government that had made them destitute (at least to their eyes), Tory policy seemed to have reverted to maintaining a population in extremis. A sick public is unlikely to give a ruling Party any opposition, which is what God told Eve in the Boble, after the serpent gave her the `fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil’, which is death. Ephemeral humans die as slaves in `enmity` with the enslaver who`s poisoned them, because it doesn`t want healthy development and immortality for humanity born from host wombs without parasites:
`When Britain first, at Heaven's command
Arose from out the azure main;
This was the charter of the land,
And guardian angels sang this strain:
`Rule, Britannia! rule the waves:
Britons never will be slaves.` 4
Satan, the angel, was turned into the serpent in Eden, because God`s plan was for the human host to be greater than the angelic, and Satan disagreed. Similarly, the human host at his `Last Supper`, She`sis, offered `bread and wine` as symbols of his `body and blood`, that is, acceptance of the human host, but his disciple Chewedass (Satan) betrayed She`sis to the Rumuns who took him to the hill of Calvary outside Jerusalem and nailed him to a cross of wood where he died. She`sis` Resurrection and Ascension to heaven was a sign that the human host will not be damned by a parasite it perforce shares a womb with.
In Dammam my sunglasses and a spare pair of spectacles, made in Buttapes` Józsefváros (Joe`s Castle) - look, if you will, for the statue of 19th century staunch ‘Coholic, Count Zichy Nándor - were stolen after Turkish airlines found it impossible to put a luggage ticket on my bag, so imagine my surprise when one of my Turkish TOEFL stud`nts in Istanbul working for Ronair said that he could give me a pair of reactolite spectacles; because his relatives were opticians! As a science fiction writer, my suspicions were that the readers were trying to write my life as a script for a commedia not unlike that of Alighieri Dante (d. 1321), who described circles in hell for ‘Coholicism at the beginning of the 14th century. If the criminals stole enough of my life, I guessed the theory went, I`d never escape their circle: `Thou shalt not kill!` (Ex: 20. 13)
Theft is murder, as God probably intended his prohibition should be interpreted, which is why the prohibition against theft is equal with the law against murder, `Thou shalt not steal.` (Ex: 20. 15) If the criminals steal enough of your life, it`s murder by degrees, and I have enough degrees as a PhD English `major` to understand that; although the murderers don`t seem to be able to: even if they`re Masons and know they`ve 360 degrees to their circle. An individual`s life isn`t a comedy for the illiterate, or `fair game` for the killer, which is why God`s Boble contains the story of the first murderer, who killed his human `brother`, because he`d invented cooking, and was Abel.
Unconsciousness of being murdered as a disabled individual is still murder by degrees in order to maintain human slavery. The automobile hasn`t improved in a hundred years, since the first mass produced Ford model T came off the Detroit, Michigan, production line in the United States of America in 1908, because motorists are still using their feet on a Mason`s treadmill for the enslaved host wombs of the human race. Women without testes won’t pass the MOT of the cars’ traitors. Homosexuals don’t want women to have a penis, and any pedestrian observing the highway can see that they’re still after her, man.
In the 8th century collection of folktales, 1001 Nights, Aladdin’s flying car’s headlamps appear when his genius awakes, but the hero`s wife succumbs to a pedlar`s blandishments, `New lamps for old!` The genie doesn’t awake from Aladdin’s new lamp. The flying car isn`t in the future, but in the past, because the slavers of the race want its feet on the treadmill. Now the traffic jams are the carpets, and they don’t fly, while in Pseudi Yarubeer four wives are permitted, so the slaver has pets in its car.
Bob Guccioni, the owner of Penthouse (1965-) magazine for adult males, which featured nude pictures of women, died in 2010, but the Penthouse Pets live on, that is, the car Pets. Although the USA claim to have won the Crazy Golf war with the help of Rusher`s `Vlad` Puttin’, the fiction maintained by misogyny is that women only put out, that is, they don`t put in, which Guccioni`s Penthouse Pets maintain, because its pages don`t feature women`s cocks. Consequently, the USA lost the Crazy Golf war to Rusher’s Puttin’, because still no one knows what goes on in the Moslem families with four wives, whereas if Penthouse featured car Pets that fucked each other, everyone would know, and the USA would be victorious for the human race. The fact that they don`t want women to be seen with their cocks in women is a sign of the aliens` defeat of the human species. They`d rather B1.
The car looks like a snake that`s been beheaded as it wends its way along what pop singer, Chris Rea, called `The Road To Hell` (1989), which again suggests that the Golf war for oil to put in the tanks, was won by the Yarubeans, that is, the Konks of the Muddle East have persuaded the West, and Rusher`s `Vlad` Puttin’, to put their noses on wheels, rather than sexually reproduce brainpower from the `seed` of women. The Yarubs ahead in their 4WDs and four wives were rich in oil, so could afford to hide the truth about `woman`s seed` from the West, beneath the burkhas of their women, while the West degenerated into `TV` transvestism, wherein men and women reproduce as `the beast` of She`sis` disciple John`s apocalyptic Revelation, a vision of the future of a single male brained creature wearing each others` clothes for `TV wars` transvestite `action`: `The dragon stood before the woman who was about to give birth to devour her child the moment it was born.` (Rev: 13. 8) Eventually, human reproduction will be so poor that it won`t be discernible, and hell`s wars will have been found at the end of the road for the race of the West, while the Yarubeans yet still prepare to unveil their humanity:
`On your journey cross the wilderness;
From the desert to the well:
You have strayed upon the motorway to hell.`5
Pedestrians are what slavers like to see amongst their circles in hell`s tradmills, which is why Oedipus` name means `swollen foot`. The ancient Greek dramatist, Sophocles, wrote Oedipus Rex (c. 429 B.C.) about a man who inadvertently kills his father, Laius, and then unknowingly marries his mother, Jocasta. Oedipus blinds himself after feeling horrified because he`s broken the incest taboo. The drama ends with Antigone, Oedipus` daughter, guiding his footsteps away from the city of Thebes. Oedipus` fate represents unconsciousness, according to `the father of psychoanalysis`, Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), because Oedipus isn`t within the family circle, that is, he doesn`t accept that host womb slavery in parasitism is what men are for, which is why he`s pedestrian: `What goes on all fours in the morning, two in the afternoon and three in the evening.` 6
In answer to the riddle in Sophocles` play, Oedipus` answer is, `Man.` Having answered correctly he is afforded the opportunity to go on into Thebes and marry the widowed queen, Jocasta, and as a blind man with a cane, he`s a prototype of murdered humanity, that is, he`s a disabled pedestrian enslaved in unconsciousness by a writer`s tradition, which is that the characters aren`t conscious of the author`s intentions. Antigone is Jocasta`s daughter denied the possibility of sexual reproduction with a woman, because she`s been taught to have mercy and so guide her self-blinded father`s footsteps onward. In fact, Oedipus` self-blinding isn`t a tragedy, because the women can then see each other. However, Oedipus` tragic nature is that his self-blinding is a last desperate act to keep the women apart through Antigone`s mercy upon him, which is women`s nature. Men`s nature is to host womb slave the species of human futanarian `woman`s seed`, so the incest taboo isn`t to prevent men from having sex with their daughters, mothers, and sisters, but to prevent the single race of women from reproducing, which would leave men without a host womb. Humanism is the perception that women can bear men, but from their own `seed`, whereas men want slaves.
Faced with a writers` collective seeking to prevent Yours Truly from progressing unhindered, the ELT Facing It 2 Gether Pre-Intermediate book loomed larger at the Istanbul Language Centre in Kidikok than otherwise it might have done. Were these people the faceless writers` collective seeking to write themselves over the writer`s meanderings and so make a palimpsest of the traveler`s travelogue? In the movie, Face/Off (1997), the Asian killer had transformed himself to look like Nick Cage`s character, Caster Troy, who`d then taken John Travolta`s face and given Travolta`s character, Sean Archer, Nick`s, which meant that, because the good guy looked like the bad guy, it was only possible to get a good look from the killer. When Mr Wriggly Ugly Boobs invited me to go to Europe from Asia every day by boarding a ship in Istanbul, Turkey, I knew I`d been Shanghaied in China. I was being accused of being Cage, GB, that is, Face/Off`s Asian was suspected of being a former KGB agent retrained for the Crazy Golf war by `Vlad` Puttin`, and the Asian was me, which effectively meant I was John Travolta dancing with the uneducated:
`Feel the city breakin' and everybody shakin'
And we're stayin' alive, stayin' alive.`7
Language skulls are notoriously tight fisted, and penny pinching institutions that don`t want their equipment to be used, because it costs money that they don`t want to spend; as it`s a busyness for them, rather than a head chuck occasional establishment run by a government administration that wants a head chuck occasion for its citizens. Consequently, teachers who seek to employ the paucity of technology, and the scarce materials they find for what they need, are accused of being spies, because the authorities don`t actually want the skulls to educate, but rather provide a cheap unofficial program for slaving internationals, who`re exterminated without recourse to local technology and medical science, which their home nations also denied to them in order to slave. English language teachers aren`t really expected to teach, they`re pressed to perform wonders illustrative of their nation`s cultural excellence, while the fiction is that the management are appreciative of the efforts made despite the financial constraints under which everyone camply concentrates.
The term `camp` is often used of homosexuals to describe the over exaggerated behavior of `TV` that disguises human sexual reproduction between women and her own `woman`s seed`. Masquerading as concern over children`s head chuck occasions, camp `TV` explains to the viewer that everyone dies of decrepitude, whereas any medical scientist would observe that immortality and youthfulness is well within the scope of human endeavor. Consequently, camp `TV` is for pederasts and paedophiles, who ghoulishly applaud death, because then they can have children. Exaggeratedly, the `death camp` guards display the busyness concern of homosexuals, while the pederasts and paedophiles wait to prey on the kids after the teachers have died in the attempt to educate adults.
The instantaneous transmission of CVs by e-mail across the globe means that an individual`s entire cultural heritage is placed under scrutiny by Ministry`s of the Interior as diverse as those of Paychink and Triple ‘E’. While I was in Istanbul, the Turks were bombing the Kids into submission, which is the nation Saddam Hussein was executed on December 30, 2003, for allegedly using poison gas against, and Kidis extends into Iraq, Iran, and Turkey, which has the largest population and land mass of that international people:
`Whether you`re a brother or whether you`re a mother
You`re stayin` alive, stayin` alive.`
As petitioners to join the European Union, Turkey is perceived as an ally of the West, but Saddam Hussein was executed for warring on the Kids, whereas ELT professionals are encouraged to perceive the wagers for war on the Kids, that is, the Turks, as friendly towards Western Europeans, which doesn`t seem obvious. Any casual listener to Turkish pop music`s Yildiz Tilbe, `Anma Arkadaş` (Do Not Make Mention Of She), can`t help but conclude correctly that its singers ghoulishly mourn the death of the women whose lives they were responsible for, `You thought the one who left will come back.`8 Nor does it appear likely that an ELT professional`s CV in the hands of a Turkish language skull manager is a security asset from the point of view of the human family. Bombing the Kids into unconscious submission is a figure of what happens to populations with national governments. ELT professionals and their families are thus a type of Kid, who represent intelligence rather than unconsciousness, which national and international governments seek to suppress. Hence the camply concentrated international language skull pogrom manager`s role as a local bomber of liberal insurgents.
The teacher is of course pimped by the language skull. In preparation for China, I had to work out for a month or so in order to fill a T-shirt respectfully, and flex my abs and biceps in a laptop Skype interview for a `position`. Naturally there was more to it, and I had to be able to juggle, while playing the saxophone, and using my toes to conjugate verbs with chalk on a blackboard. Qualifications are of less use than chopsticks in Ireland when it`s China. Although I was intimidated but gently when I attempted a bowl of meat and potatoes without chopsticks when I arrived in Wenjou city. For the Chinese, Skype interrogations are pornography, much like the ancient practice of `foot binding` has been replaced by ELT selection procedures as a form of Chopherknees torture in post Bridge Over The River Kwai (1957) settings in Chopann, where the cartoon form of Hentai manga celebrates misogyny’s triumph over ‘futanari’ women with balls of their own to be sadistically tortured as the Chopherknees used to symbolically bind the futanarian women’s feet to prevent them from escaping the alien rapists of their species. For Chinese ‘woman’s seed’, Skype suggests Steve McQueen fruitlessly trying to get his motorcycle to jump over the Nazi guards on the hillside in the movie, The Great Escape (1963), and it`s the Red Guard’s role to make sure that they can`t. Airfare is reimbursed after six months or a year, which means a period of hard labor in order to remain long enough to earn enough to leave by cheap plane ticket after being caught attempting to escape international pogroming through Skype.
Turning my ELT credentials towards Asia seemed logical, and although Feared Name and parts Far Eastern seem explorable in financial terms, who`d want to work for Campodium`s Pol Pot language ghouls. Pol was the Indo-Chinese leader that decided to kill all of the people with brainpower in his nation, a feat comparable to those of Mouse Satan in China, Stalin in Rusher, and numerous other minor dictators, whose penchant was to potter about muttering about the dangers of international language skulls. President Dick Nikon kept on carpet bombing during the Indo-China war (1946-89) as well as with the `agent orange` defoliation pogrom delivered by US adapted crop spraying aircraft, which removed all of the vegetation from that region so that the people would starve, because there`d be no food either for them or livestock. It was business as usual for the US as Hollywood Westerns nostalgically celebrated the killing of almost all of the 60, 000, 000 buffalo in the 1880s to starve the North American Plains` Indians to death. Decide who was the bigger criminal, Pol or Dick, or whether Saddam Hussein, strangled Iraqi bomber of the Kids, or Ahmet Davutoğlu, Turkey`s President during the September 2015 bombing of the Kids, was more deserving of our lack of respect:
`Kidis independence in Iraq could lead to Kidis independence in Syria, which could lead to Kidis independence in Iran, which could lead to Kidis independence in Turkey. Every time a new independent Kidis entity pops up in the Muddle East, the likelihood that Turkey will lose an enormous swath of its territory increases.`9
The pattern is of a parasite behind in technology. The creature discovers a civilization or culture, etc., including human reproduction between women, which interferes with its host womb slaving of the species it’s parasitically devouring, and gets behind it with its technology, that is guns, and kills it up to the point where it's enslaved. The host race has to be brain dead, so the parasite is a cock-eater, which is why women's capacity for sexually reproducing human brain power has been truncated. The parasite spreads its brain-eating plague by mixing, blood, shit and semen in the anuses of humans to kill the brain with HIV/AIDS, a virus that collapses the organs of the body before killing the brain as an aspect of the cock-eater parasite's teleology, which is to enslave the species of 'woman's seed' and watch it kill itself as a 'TV'. Men and women constitute 'the beast' of Revelation manufacturing themselves as a single male brained creature wearing each others' clothes as a transvestite 'TV' killed for it’s alien entertainment by a cock-eater watching a brain damaged monster die in the throes of its madness. The sight of the cars of humanity behind itself in technology is symptomatic of the evil curse of the demon driven seeking to put a bullet in the ass of the more advanced dead ahead.
If there aren`t any Kids, a large swath of territory necessarily devolves upon Iraq, Syria, Iran and Turkey, because Kidis is a very large nation with a population that wasn`t territorial until the nearby national heads began stealing the Kids` territory. Kidis was a truly international nation, which is the supposed ideological reasoning for the existence of the European Union super state, where people belong without reference to borders. Where borders aren`t perceived there aren`t any borders, which mightn`t be perceived as true if you come from Manhattan, and you`re on your way to the Bronx. Although the borders are invisible, they`re real enough to street gangs. As Rita Moreno`s character, Anita, in the film of the 1957 Broadway musical, West Side Story (1961), with music by Leonard Bernstein, and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim, sings in `A Boy Like That`, for a mixed audience of `Jets` and `Sharks`, who`re Potti Ricans and Polished immigrants off to the United States of America descended from families processed after arriving at Ellis Island at the mouth of the Hudson river between the states of New Jersey and New York:
`A boy like that who'd kill your brother;
Forget that boy and find another.
One of your own kind, stick to your own kind.
A boy like that will give you sorrow;
You'll meet another boy tomorrow.`10
Between 1965 and 1999, the British Broadcasting Corporation`s BBC 1 televised Jeux Sans Frontières, that is, Games Without Borders, as a jokily competitive Europe-wide television show, because the ideological perspective of Europe was of a super state that didn`t have enemies within. As an ELT professional engaged in working in Europe, and in nations seeking entry as member states of the European Union, hoodlums make it difficult for an individual to leave the district they live in and travel to the next; irrespective of destinations arrived at from international airports more resembling abattoirs, with damned animals collecting meat stamps to avoid being condemned, than humans in transit before visiting relatives and friends.
1 Tennyson, Alfred Lord, `Ulysses`, 1833, l. 52-3.
2 Tennyson, `Ulysses`, l. 60-1.
3 Sargent, Epes, and Henry Russell `A Life On The Ocean Wave`, 1838.
4 Thomson, James The Works of James Thomson, 1763, Vol II, p. 191.
5 Rea, Chris `The Road To Hell` (Pt 1), The Road To Hell, WEA, 1989.
6 Apollodorus, Library of Apollod, 3. 5. 8.
7 Gibb, Barry, Maurice Gibb, Robin Gibb, `Stayin` Alive`, Bee Gees, Saturday Night Fever: Motion Picture Soundtrack, RSO, 1977.
8 Sarıkaya, Selahattin `Anma Arkadaş` (Do Not Make Mention of She), Yildiz Tilbe, Aşk İnsanı Değiştirir, 2009.
9 Totten, Michael J. `Turkey Bombs The Kurds`, October 16, 2014, World Affairs, https://www.worldaffairsjournal.org/blog/michael-j-totten/turkey-bombs-kurds .
10 Moreno Rita as Anita `A Boy Like That` from West Side Story, Seven Arts, 1961.
The TEFL`s Crew`s Aid
The `Promised Land` for the TEFL`s Crew is the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, where salaries are Western, and the cost of living isn`t. Of course, the Westerner has to get used to the cultural differences and evince a degree of unwonted sensitivity as the burger restaurant, MacDonald`s, refuses to allow you to sit with the Moslem families, or indeed any other families, if you`re single, and the sight of single youths and men being turned away from the giant shopping malls, because they`re not with a family, is a common ritual within a social system that puts single boys and men in a category apart; as though they are pariahs within society. The Moslem women in the religious framework that is Islam wear the one-piece coverall of the burka in public from which only their eyes can be seen, and four wives are permissible to Moslem families. Although the HIV/AIDS test for the English language teaching professional seems defensible as a means of preventing the spread of the incurable killer disease known to proliferate through homosexual men`s mixing of blood, shit and semen in each others` anus during sterile mockeries of human sexual intercourse, the segregation between men and families in Arabia seems more likely to encourage homosexuality in pederasty, which makes of the HIV/AIDS test a `gay` filter for a society that wants its homosexual sex to be unthreatening.
Although the widespread implementation of the HIV/AIDS test for English language teachers and others seems protective of women, in fact it`s designed to indicate to the homosexuals within the community that the ELT teacher isn`t yet infected. Cultural differences, and the demand for sensitivity towards the burka babe environment, in cities like Jeddah or Riyadh, mask a dangerously visible homosexuality, which allows itself to be seen everywhere and conditions the visitor to accept it as the face of humanity, which is what homosexual pederasts do with their `chosen` victims. Rather than test the students` competence in English through examination, the ELT professional`s blood is examined by the medical establishment, in the United Kingdom and elsewhere, to see if he passes the victimizers` test to see if the teacher can be persuaded to `accept` Islam, which is the latest form of the `gay` terror.
Each time an ELT professional applies for employment they`re required to give name, address, nearest of kin to contact in an emergency, and previous location, which could be difficult if the local Dr Who, with his tardis, decided that he hadn`t wanted you as his teacher. Giving one`s emergency passport page to a language school in the European Union, for example, Hungary, might seem innocuous, but your address and the name of an emergency friend or relative in the hands of the Libyan Jumhūriyyah, or Bashar Assad`s Syria, is something that most people wouldn`t want to contemplate. Having worked in Deir Ezzor, in Syria, and in Tripoli, Libya before the 2011 revolution, it`s discomforting to know that the ISIS rebels from Syria and Iraq, and Colonel Gadaffi`s opponents, know who was working there and keep records. Although the inevitable Skype interview for ELT teachers looking for work seems innocuous, it`s a method of selection for employment based on ID-ing the applicant, which has nothing to do with qualified personnel or proven ability to teach. While on the surface Skyping looks like a very `gay` activity, for those vetting applicants looks after they`ve passed an HIV/AIDS blood test, and who`re looking to visit Moslem societies, where the women are hidden beneath the one-piece coverall of their burkas from which only their eyes can be seen, and the men are often brazen, ID-ing people by Skype is a way of hunting for those who were useful to a former regime, for example, in Egypt, Sudan, Syria, Libya, Tunisia, etc., and of finding ways of abusing favorites, who`re now out of favor with the new rulers, while Skype affords an opportunity to target them. Essentially Skype ID-ing is used to make employment decisions based on what the police call `mug shots`, and what the criminals call `mugging`, that is, who or what you may look like, rather than whichever degree, diploma, or certificate you hold, and the length and quality of your teaching experience and proven ability`s success, which makes a mug of anyone who`s prepared to sit still for a shadowy figure on camera at the other end of a laptop video connection in a bedsit in Cairo where an ELT `pro` is looking to escape his policed `probation` and another mafia family is looking for another ellipsoidal Skype `lemon` under their desktop to squeeze the juice out of:
`I'm gonna leave my children down on this killin' floor.` 1
Obviously the ELT professional has no intention of placing their loved ones at risk, although the lyric from Led Zeppelin`s `The Lemon Song` might appeal to the lemons at the other end of the Skype connection who profess Satanism along with the band members of Led Zeppelin (1969-). Lemons usually make tea, and although the ELT professional mightn`t see themselves as the `tea boy`, represented by the ellipsoidal green `lemon` of the Skype icon under their laptop beneath the desktop, `Tea For One` isn`t possible without money`s conferring independence on the victims of old pederasts and their perpetual enmity for humanity:
`There was a time that I stood tall, In the eyes of other men.`2
On September 11, 2001, terrorists crashed civil airliners into the World Trade Center of New York city to precipitate global `rough trade`, that is, the `brutality and violence` associated with homosexuality in pederasty. The ancient Greeks institutionalized homosexuality in pederasty, and the enslavement of women`s host wombs for war, and thereafter Greece was held as the model of democracy for Western civilization, culture and art. When the United States of America responded to 9/11 by toppling the Afghan Taliban regime that had supplied bases to Al Qaeda, and the Iraqi dictator, Saddam Hussein, who offered bases to Al Qaeda, that `brutality and violence` associated with homosexuality and pederasty was what the Gulf war terrorists had aimed for, because that`s `gay terror`.
Women are not homosexual, which explains the monotheme. Futanarian women have penis` semen of their own, which is why Moslem families have four wives so that women can sexually reproduce with each other. Jesus` birth uncontaminated by male semen from his mother, the Virgin Mary, in fact prefigures Islam, because Jesus was tortured to death by the Roman Empire as a `dissident` against male braining and war, `Love your neighbor as you love yourself.` (Mk: 12. 31) Nailed to a cross of wood upon the hill of Calvary outside Jerusalem, Jesus` death, Resurrection and Ascension to heaven prefigured the Resurrection and Ascension of `woman`s seed` uncontaminated by male semen, and so able to rise through her own brains` powers for labor saving and escape from host womb parasitism to slavery and death to her human species in men`s wars upon her Earth against her race. Because women aren`t homosexual, men`s monotheme of homosexuality in pederasty and war is explainable as women`s extinction by an alien that has inveigled itself into women`s host wombs to steal her penis` semen, before emerging as a classic instance of parasitology to devour its host.
Men aren`t monotheists so much as monothemists, that is, their theme is that homosexuality is normal because women are lesbians, whereas women are lesbians, because that`s normal for the human futanarian species. By removing the human competition, men practice homosexuality. Women are made schizophrenic in rejecting what they see in the mirror as sexually desirable for themselves, and are made to schizophrenically accept an alien that isn`t of their species through a mass media propaganda tool that includes Hollywood`s city of the angels, Los Angeles, on the West coast of the United States of America, and the entire movie, news and entertainment industry of the planet Earth, because that`s how the alien enslaves. The World Trade Center (2007) movie, and the movie about a US marine in the Gulf war, Jarhead (2005), were simply normative aspects of a universally accepted media of `gay` terror, and Al Qaeda was but a usual part of that normative pattern of homosexuality in pederasty and war for the alien enslaver. By defining the human species of futanarian women with their own penis` semen as abnormal, the alien redefined homosexuality in pederasty and war as normative and proceeded to extinguish the human race in war against it. Homosexuality is the monotheme of the alien, because that`s its monotheism, and the extinction of the human species is what it worships. Having observed to the women that it isn`t homosexual, because they perforce are, after it`s stolen their penis, the alien proceeds to their extermination as a monotheistic worshipper of a single, homosexual, God.
Men have replaced sex with war, and the humans are on the wrong end of it. Adult movies should have women`s penis in the picture as a matter of course, but the `Hays code` (1930-67) imposed by the President of the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America (MPPDA), Will Hays, forbad women from raising their `foot` from the floor in bedroom scenes, because God`s promise to Eve was, `You shall crush the head of the serpent with your foot, although he shall bruise your heel.` (Gen: 3. 15) Jesus` birth uncontaminated by male semen fulfilled God`s promise that `woman`s seed` would produce her own stronger brains than men`s and she`d triumph. Hollywood, Babylon, through the `Hays code` sought to prevent `woman`s seed` from being known about by cinema audiences, so that slavery to homosexuality in pederasty and war could be established. Because there are no adult movies in which women`s penis is accepted as being present as a basic component of the film, all Hollywood, Babylon product is aimed at pederasty and keeping humans occluded and ignorant in an uneducated system promoting homosexual `action` and war. Consequently, 9/11 and the Gulf war was the movie they were planning to make in the United States of America, because the penis of the women beneath the burka of the human species of futanarian Moslems in Islam might conceivably emerge onto the world`s stage as a threat to the false democracy of societies based on the male braining of women in a 50% split with themselves as men in a transvestite `TV` democracy where all the characters are the same and just wear different clothes for the `small screening` in which the aliens, represented by the incurable killer disease of their `biological warfare` of HIV/AIDS` terror weapon that maintained fearful faithfulness to men`s ownership of women in monogamy`s ring slavery, distinguished themselves from their human victims. Without autocratic rule by men common in Moslem nations, the 80% to 20% split between women and men in Moslem families would be generously democratic given the fact that the alien enslaver is homosexual and the women aren`t.
The TEFL`s crew`s aid to nations that want to learn English language as a means of global communication is tempered by the knowledge that the word is used to spread the lies and propaganda of the alien enslaver of the futanarian human species of `woman`s seed`, which Resurrection and ultimate Ascension to heaven as God`s `chosen people` of the Bible, was heralded by the birth of Jesus Christ uncontaminated by male semen from his mother, the Virgin Mary, and prefigured in his death, Resurrection and Ascension to heaven. The serpent is known as the `father of lies` and the split between Judaism, Christianity and Islam derives from Abraham`s wife, Sara, who gave Hajer, her maid, to Abraham, after birthing Isaac, whose lineage founded Judaism, and Sara found herself barren. Hajer produced her son, Ishmael, whose lineage founded Islam, because the Moslem faith derives from the perception that more than one wife is permissible. In Judaism it is only possible to be born a Jew from a woman, because women are Jews, that is, women are the `chosen people`, and Jesus born uncontaminated by male semen from his mother, the Virgin Mary, was a Jew, because he was `woman`s seed`. Even so, Christianity is unable to preach the Redemption, Resurrection, and Ascension of women as the futanarian human race, along with special men like Jesus, who can accept women as the human race, because homosexuality in pederasty is at war against all of civilization, culture and art that women`s host wombs are still able to produce, despite the parasite`s depredations, and so the Christian preacher doesn`t teach that Judaism, Islam and Christianity are but aspects of a single female species` faith in God, because he isn`t strong enough for Jesus` brand of burka at MacDonald`s.
1 Bonham, John, Chester Arthur Burnett (Howlin` Wolf), John Paul Jones, Jimmy Page, Robert Plant, `The Lemon Song`, Led Zeppelin II, Atlantic, 1969.
2 Page, Jimmy, Robert Plant, Led Zeppelin, `Tea For One`, Presence, Swan Song, 1976.
To The TEFL A Teacher
A favorite movie is Bedazzled (1967), starring Hollywood ‘Babylon’ sex symbol and actress, Raquel Welch, as ‘Lust` among the `seven deadly sins` which, according to the established churches, result in the individual`s going to perdition, that is, ‘eternal unendurable pain’, if willfully embraced. The personified `sins` were wrath, greed, sloth, pride, lust, envy, and gluttony, which George Spiggott, the devil in Bedazzled, plagues Stanley Moon, who has been granted seven wishes, with. In the 1967 version, actor-comedian Peter Cook, in the role of Spiggott, is in competition with God for one billion souls. Although God doesn`t allow the devil back into heaven, at movie`s end Spiggott’s won. Peter Cook`s comedy partner, Dudley Moore, in the role of Stanley Moon, is restored to his old life, rather than doomed, because Spiggott had his billionth soul before Moon’s appearance in the film.
As a comedy, written by Cook and Moore, the film is neatly explanatory, and was again so in the 2000 remake starring actor Brendan Fraser as Eliot Richards, and beautiful actress Elizabeth Hurley in the role of Satan. Eliot’s bedeviled by what she calls his ‘mistakes’; for example, in one of his wishes to be with actress Frances O`Connor in the ‘love interest’ role of Alison Gardner, he`s homosexual, and so can`t consummate his desire. Finally, he asks Satan to cancel the contract, and uses his final wish to escape hell. In the ’67 movie, Moon’s conversion from being `bedazzled` by the light from a ‘fallen star' represents the course of Redemption, which is why actress Raquel Welch is in the position of the Earth`s star, that is, the sun, to Stanley, who is beneath her. Moon is redeemed, because he's ignorant of the machinery of Redemption, which says that acceptance of 'woman's seed' is dependent on knowledge of it, so Stanley is redeemed after the style of the woman of Revelation, `… a woman clothed with the sun, with the moon under her feet ... about to give birth.’ (Rev: 12. 1-2). As ‘Lust’, Raquel is ‘adultery’. However, as women are a single separate species, so incapable of adultery, though helpless to prevent being adulterated by men, paedophiles for host womb slavery, and pederasty in war against ‘woman’s seed’, are her adulterate boy sons, that is, poisons, and that’s how men crush resistance to adultery in their children, who remain ignorant of women. Conditioned to ignore each other's penis in pederasty, men remain blind to the attraction of the race of futanarian 'woman's seed', and slaves to homosexuality's war against humanity. Unable to be born from women’s human mode of sexual reproduction between themselves, children are damned, ‘The dragon stood before the woman who was about to give birth, so that it might devour her child the moment it was born.’ (Rev: 12.4) Relying on perceived threats to children producing outrage shifts focus away from advanced science’s goal of immortality. Preaching about slaving wars occurring during Palestine’s period of desert existence in tents encourages ephemerals’ belief in low technology, so that humanity becomes pederasty's cannon fodder in its alien wars upon 'woman's seed'. In Bedazzled, Stanley Moon lusts for Raquel Welch, which is symbolic of race war. In host womb parasitism for slavery in pederasty's war against her species, Moon is a parasite adulterate. However, sex per se is good, which is what Raquel represents. Stanley could be born in heaven from 'woman's seed', though Raquel remains a symbol of lust in parasitism, because of mass media censorship in favor of homosexual ‘action’. Faith in Resurrection, that is, Ascension to heaven through women’s brainpower, is needed, so that neither Stanley Moon, nor anyone else, can be in heaven without being born of ‘woman’s seed’.
In the 1967 version of Bedazzled, `Envy` is Australian actor-comedian, and female impersonator, Barry Humphries, who was famous for the `wisteria hue` hair of his character, Dame Edna Everage, with the horn rimmed spectacles he/she called `face furniture`, and a catchphrase based on the perception that everyone who watched ‘her’ teevee show, The Dame Edna Experience (1987-9), was a native Australian rodent, `Hello, Possums!` When the UK in 1986 began to introduce training programs for the National Vocational Qualification (NVQ),1 aimed at assessing and determining those tasks that remained identical throughout employment, so that an individual could be trained to perform competently across a wide range of paid occupations, it was obviously a criminal gang being prepared to assist a gangster to ‘move up’ through the envy queues. As ‘Envy’, Edna represented slavery, that is, utility, rather than beauty, which isn’t the essence of that business, although the female form obviously had its use. Rather lusting after Raquel Welch, whose charms were familiar from the film, One Million Years B.C. (1966), as a cavewoman in a bikini, Loana, she’s the type of child that slaving regimes foster. Forced to sublimate my own libido, a TEASESOUL English language teacher’s Certificate, combined with an NVQ 5, made me an actor. Way back in the ‘penis envy’ queue,2 without even the knowledge that Raquel’s penis should have been enviable, Edna’s look was evidently intended to appeal more to the criminal mind.
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was the founder of the skull of Vienna psychology who decided, after an analysis of a young girl that she was typical of a condition he termed `penis envy`, which was clinically diagnosable as envy of men who had penis. However, the `seven deadly sins` are defined as `... a form of idolatry-of-self wherein the subjective reigns over the objective.`3 Consequently, Raquel Welch as `Lust` represents that form of self-idolatry in which the subjective penis seeks to reign over the objective sex symbol, that is, the male penis envies the woman`s, and supplants her. As comedian Barry Humphries promoted Dame Edna Everage as Australia`s woman, penis’ supplantation was the unspoken theme. In sterile anal sex between homosexual men, the woman's penis is supplanted in favor of the anus, which means that violent surprise attacks from the rear are symptomatic of men in the absence of a universal system of defending woman as the Earth's race, for example, Japan's unannounced attack on the US’ Pacific fleet at Hawaii's Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, and Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990, illustrate the absence of a species’ defense, and the omnipresent threat of homosexual attack from behind. HIV/AIDS is similarly symptomatic of the desire to attack 'woman's seed', and deliberately devised 'bad machine code', which is based on the 'incurable killer virus' AIDS, and that kills computer brains, is a further symptom of men’s unspoken aim of killing women’s futanarian human species for host womb parasitism in pederasty’s war against the human race. As women have their own penis as `futanarian` women, that means Raquel, or Liz Hurley, etc., are false ‘sex objects' for a parasite’s penis, which should be women`s only, and so having only human women as its object. Consequently, Raquel as `Lust`, and Liz as `Satan`, represent truth, which is that men envied women's penis, so lust and Satan were what women represented for men, because women were separate, single, and independent of ring slavery. As Dame Edna Everage, Barry Humphries represents the `envy queue`, that is, the male penis fits all employment situations, although it’s an exterminator's.
In terms of `Business Administration`,4 an NVQ Level 1 could be awarded a skull leaver for something as simple as knowing how to operate a photocopier, which is a `work-related task` representing a level of intellectual achievement comparable to England’s Grade 5 Certificate of Secondary Head Chuck Occasions (CSHCO),5 that is, the least level of attainment in the UK`s education system, between 1965 and 1987, indicative of a recordable failure in academic work, for example, Physics or History, whereas a CSE 1 was equivalent to a GCE `O` Ordinary Level pass at `C` Grade from the 1950s, and before the introduction of GSCEs in the 1980s, which afforded stud`nts of different levels of attainment the possibility of sitting the same exam.7 In simple terms, NVQs are associated with `envy`, because vocational trainees aspire at a level of intellectual freedom at, or lower than, CSE 5, which represents a higher possibility for being envied by those with genuine freedom outside wage slavery. The NVQ represents the problem of the individual who must replace those who’ve queued before in order to ‘move up’ in society, that is, it encourages the killer. Consequently, those sent overseas as English Language Teaching (ELT) professionals were a priori death row’s convicted killers.
Criminals don`t develop the brain. For a criminal, the brain is an electric light bulb. They don`t develop it. They switch it on and off, which is why the Briti television drama series, Callan (1967-72), starring Edward Woodward,8 always featured a light bulb being switched off in the opening credits. The ‘Callan Method’ is a well-known approach towards English language teaching,9 which requires the educator to elicit at high speed from stud`nts, who must learn to react quickly and respond. Like actor Edward Woodward's secret agent, and sometime killer protagonist, David Callan. Only 66% of the human species are accountably present on the planet Earth, if `futanarian` women with their own penis are absent, that is, killers, after the David Callan ‘method', have switched the light off, while the ELT pros are trying to switch it back on, which is why the Boble describes two beasts in Revelation, `This calls for wisdom. Let the person who has insight calculate the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man. That number is 666.` (Rev: 13. 18) 33.3% of humanity is missing, because of the TV 'beasts' that pederasty and penisless women have become, `… no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark, or the name of the beast, or the number of his name.` (Rev: 13. 17) No human women’s ‘seed’ can live with the beast’, which is the business perspective of the parasite. Because women are at least 33% of the human race, men and women are male brained, because they refuse to accept that `woman`s seed`, that is `futanarian` women`s penis` semen, is valid. Men are taught hatred for the feminine, so Eliot is `gay` in Bedazzled, and Barry Humphries wears women`s clothes as TV's Dame Edna Everage. Their sterile culture is based on killing the feminine, that is, ‘TV’ Edna is ‘wrong', although laughable, because Edna isn’t a woman with a man’s penis, which means he’s ‘in drag’. Or, in other words, men who’ve usurped women’s penis are the dragon, Satan, while homosexual Eliot laughably can't get erect with Alison, because pederasty's for war and plague, that is, the HIV/AIDS virus. As women are male brained through eons of male semen, their subjectivity is trained to `object defy` women`s sexual desirability to women. Consequently, the English ‘system’ is for men who thwart women`s penis, because men are ‘penis envy’, that is, envious of women’s penis. Consequently, NVQ trainees are trained to value practical, rather than intellectual brainpower, which would manifest for the benefit of the emancipated human race from 'woman's seed', and that would end the parasites' enslavement of the human species, whereas the envy queue sustains it. If women bred with each other, they'd have a democratically controlling demographic, which would end the alien’s host womb slaving in parasitism for pederasty’s wars against ‘woman’s seed’.
The model for Western society is derived from ancient Egypt John religion and its mythology, that is, the `Ka` or spirit, and `Ba` or soul, which are conjoined after bodily death as the `Akh` or `magical personality`.10 The Ka’ Ba, that is, the ‘square’ in Pseudi Yarubeer’s city of Me car, is where the Muzzlems are taught to go anti-clockwise, and then park for a Muttawah, or more. It was Henry Ford that manufactured the first mass produced car, the Model-T Ford,11 in 1908 at a plant in Detroit, Michigan, USA, which replaced the Yarubean camel as a means of transportation. Although alcohol is ‘haraam’, that is, forbidden in Muzzlem nations, in western societies that’s what it’s for. After the car (Ka) is driven to the car park (Ka-Ba-Akh), the driver gets out of the car (Ka). Goes to the bar (Ba) where he abjures his ‘magical personality’ to become the Everyman hero, Beer Man, unless he’s rescued by the yellow cab company, that is, the Al Uqab, with the flag of the Brafit M’mumhad, there’s the Qerash to worry about, who’re the ‘war tribe’. Although the idea of the yellow cab’s flag dropping to obviate a car crash seem only allegorically representative of the Al Uqab and the Qerash, for a western driver to crash a car when drunk on alcohol, or to take a cab to avoid a crash, isn’t.
In the west, alcohol is ‘the demon drink’, while Al Gol is in fact a demon amongst the Yarubeans, that is, a ghoul. Approximately 2 billion television sets tuned in to watch the hijacked civil airliners being crashed into the World Trade Center in New York city on September 11, 2001, by the terrorist group, Al Qaeda, because TVs are the Yarubean ghoul’s eyes. In symbolic terms, the Egyptian `Akh` is the `futanarian` woman with her own penis` semen, who is absent from the picture presented by western society, though not absent from the possible picture of the `Slammeric society in which four women within a marriage afford the possibility of sexual reproduction between women, which God seems to promise to the ‘seed’ of Amaninabra, `I will surely bless you and make your descendants as numerous as the stars in the sky and as the sand on the seashore. (Gen: 22. 17) Western society is an allegory of the Chews` attempt to escape from slavery to the Egypt Johns, that is, the car (Ka) to the car park (Ka-Ba-Akh) and on to the bar (Ba), in anticipation of the crash for the ghoul’s following, isn`t the conjoining of woman with 'woman's seed', but a demand that the unbelievers follow the flag of the Brafit M’Mumhad, that is, the Al Uqab, which is the flag of the yellow cab company, in allegorical terms, because ghouls don’t avoid crashes.
When Britney Spears was kissed at the Music Television (MTV) Video Music Awards (VMA) by pop singer, Madonna, their duet on the track, 'Me Against The Music’, from Spears’ 2003 album, In The Zone, suggested sexual intercourse between them was on the agenda, ‘My hips are movin' at a rapid pace. Can you feel it burn?’12 With dancers ‘the zone’ is that place where they’re moving fluently without noticeable effort, and the treadmill is where they exercise. However, treadmills were for slaves. Usually, the treadmill was connected to production, for example, grinding flour, but treadmills were also used simply as a means of torment. Consequently, Britney’s ‘ Me Against The Music’ duet with Madonna is actually an anti-slavery song:
‘It's whippin' my hair, it's pullin' my waist;
To hell with stares.
The sweat is drippin' all over my face,
And no one's there.’
The unnoticed treadmill of the 20th century was the automobile television, which transmitted its ‘pictures’ after being pedaled. The gear stick, for example, telling the driver when to move his feet, is what slavers did. If you’re told when to move your feet, it’s limiting, that is, disabling, because able people would escape. Consequently, basic car design hasn’t changed since the first of Henry Ford’s Model-Ts that rolled off the production line in Detroit on October 1st, 1908, because it’s designed to disable and enslave for the ‘TV’ treadmill of pedaled pictures. As Ka-Ba-Akh (car park) transmissions, Madonna’s (Ka) sexual desire for Britney Spears (Ba) denotes the activity of the ‘magical personality’ (Akh), that is, the developmental archetype of futanarian ‘woman’s seed’, whose ‘pictures’ from the unconscious aren’t received amongst the people of Earth, because women are treadmilled as the slaves of men.
Madonna’s exponence of Chewedic mysticism, ‘Kabbala’, which contains the phonemic elements of Ka, Ba, and Al Uqab, suggests that the ancient religion of the Egypt Johns was transmitted to the Chews before their escape from slavery during the rule of Thutmose II. The Chews took the tablets of the law given to Moses by God atop Mt Hebron in the Ark (Akh) of the Covenant, which contained the ‘female spirit of God’, ‘Shekinah’ (Ex: 25. 8). The Ark (Akh) had angels upon it, with their wings stretched forward, touching the tips of each other’s wings, so suggesting the future angelic host of women in heaven as the product of sexual union between women’s `Ka` spirit, and `Ba` soul, that is, as the `Akh` or `magical personality`, which is the Al Uqab in the Ka-Ba-Akh (car park) of Yarubeer’s Me car.
The first parasitical male in Eden was Satan, the angel cast down from heaven by God for refusing to accept that the human host would be better than the angelic, and turned into the serpent by God as a punishment. Satan offered Eve, the first woman created by God, and the first man, Adam, the `fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil`, which was death, although Satan promised, `You shall be as gods.` (Gen: 3. 5) In accepting, Eve and Adam forfeited the `tree of life`, that is, immortality, although God told them they`d have Redemption, if Adam labored, and Eve accepted her own labor pains, ‘You shall crush the head of the serpent with your foot.’ (Gen: 3. 15) Eve’s descendant, the Virgin Mary, birthed women’s savior, She’sus, uncontaminated by male semen, that is, he was ‘woman’s seed`. However, immediately after God’s expulsion of Eve and Adam from Eden, men enslaved the host wombs of women, and suppressed their daughters` penis’ semen, so that the Everyman hero, Beer Man, could pedal the human race on an alien treadmill, that is, women’s ‘foot’ was her futanarian species, which was being pedaled. Moreover, ‘woman’s seed’ wouldn’t be able to escape pedaling, because it wasn’t able to produce brainpower enough to give itself the permanent memory capacity God promised through medical science’s conferring of immortality, so that its people always had understanding.
In Jesus’ disciple John’s apocalyptic vision of the future, Revelation, the child who will `rule the nations with an iron scepter` is She’sus come again to the Earth, while the dragon, Satan, grown in size since Eden, is the `serpent`s seed` of men`s devouring wars: `The dragon stood in front of the woman who was about to give birth, so that it might devour her child the moment he was born.` (Rev: 12. 4) Emerging from women’s species’ host womb, men’s ‘penis envy’ is the cause of their extermination of her `futanarian` race. She’sus` teaching was that God’s law was, `Love your neighbor as you love yourself,` (Mk: 12. 31) Although he was `woman`s seed`, women were taboo, so She’sus was killed. Actually, he was caught. Chewedass found him with a woman, who was anointing She’sus with the expensive perfume ‘spikenard’. Chewedass’ spy canard was that it should be sold to raise money, and She’sus told him, ‘Leave her alone.’ (Mk: 14. 6) Chewedass gave She’sus over to the Rumuns for crucifixion as a ‘dissident’, because freedom for ‘woman’s seed’ might interfere with the slavers’ enjoyment of the perfume in their nostrils from the genitals they’d stolen from the humans.
The TEFL and NVQ program for vocational training in English Language Teaching (ELT) is a devil and `envy queue` in the Rope Of New Onions’ superstate, where women are pedaled and kept on the treadmill, rather than She’sus` footrace should produce brains enough to run. In Hungry, ‘fut’ and ‘tanar’ mean ‘run’ and ‘teacher’,13 that is, She’sus was a ‘futanar’, or species’ trainer. Although `futanari`14 is the Japanese term for women with penis in Japan`s culture of `foot binding` for women to prevent their moving quickly,15 it isn`t the last place on Earth where ELT is able to assist understanding. The Brafit M’mumhad founded the `Slammer from the Gran (6. 10-30 am/pm) after She’sus` Ascension, who is Isa, in the Gran (19), which was dictated by the angels, according to Muzzlem tradition. As there are four wives in the `Slammeric marriages, the tradition of the Chewish `chosen people` and the Muzzlem marriage are compatible, if `futanarian` women are conceived as the `chosen people` of the human race. As it`s not possible for a man to be a Chew unless born from a woman, women are Chews. Born from his mother, the Virgin Mary/Maryam, uncontaminated by male semen, isa (She’sus) represents ‘woman`s seed`, that is, the Crushteen paedophile belief in Redemption is a development of Chewedaism and/or the `Slammer, which means ‘acceptance’. Although in practice it’s a prison for ‘woman’s seed`, She’sus’ teaching isn’t: ‘I am the door. If anyone enters by me, he will be saved and will go in and out and find pasture. The thief comes only to steal and kill and destroy. I came that they may have life and have it abundantly.’ (John: 10. 9-10)
The Muddle East`s penchant for thumb print ID machines to give the TEFL`s teacher egress and ingress is an `envy queue` adjunct. Consequently, arriving at the place of employment early enough to thumb print the ID machine before a queue forms, and employing the same method after the queuers have left the workplace, is advisable. Although it means paying taxis, rather than making use of the company bus, it’s worth it to avoid standing in the queue. What had been learned was more than had been taught, which was that the human race had been disabled to train it as an animal to stumble over the cliff and into the river and drown, like the pigs in the New Mendedtoaster narrative of She’sus who, near the town of Gadarene, cast evil spirits from men he met, `The spirits came out, and entered into some pigs, which rushed down to the sea and drowned.` (Mk: 5. 13) If you don’t stand in the queue, you won’t be persuaded to run off the cliff and drown in the sea.
The demons’ aim to possess humans and drive them off the cliff and into the sea, ‘If the Jewish state becomes a fact, and this is realized by the Arab peoples, they will drive the Jews who live in their midst into the sea.’16 As women aren`t told that they can sexually reproduce with each other as `futanarian` humans, the Earth is possessed by demons driving the brainless human race off a precipice. Those in the envy queue wouldn`t be envious if they weren`t behind. Consequently, NVQ is shorthand for ‘brain damage’. The victim of men`s refusal to educate the human race of women that they could sexually reproduce with each other in order to enable the human species’ brainpower, rather than that the race be driven over the precipice to its doom, is an indication that men and women couldn’t count to three.
Removing the woman`s penis disabled the three-legged race, so its hobbling to Armageddon, which is a plain in Northern Israel near the port of Haifa, and represented in the Boble as the place of the final conflict between God and evil, could be filmed as ‘Hollywood’ entertainment, `God remembered Babylon the Great and gave her the cup filled with the wine of the fury of his wrath.` (Rev: 16. 19) The battle on the plain of Armageddon is before God`s judgment upon the evil of perdition, that is, ‘eternal unendurable pain’, and the good’s receiving of a new heaven and Earth from God. Men are the worm that has enslaved women’s species’ host womb for devouring warfare, `Mystery, Babylon the great, mother of harlots and of the abominations of the Earth.` (Rev: 17. 5) Extinction is the parasite`s teleology, and the human species is its worm`s hole.
After the serpent, Satan, determined Eve would be a suitable host, he`d have to remove the penis of Eve`s daughters, which demanded pogromers. Germany`s National Socialist (Nazi) Party was elected to govern Germany, and Adolf Hitler became Chancellor in 1933. He attempted to eradicate the `chosen people`, that is, Eve`s `futanarian` host wombs for the sexual reproduction of human brainpower. During WWII (1939-45), Hitler’s ‘Nazis’ built ‘death camps’ in which upwards of 20, 000, 000 Jews were exterminated before Germany’s defeat. During the Yucanslavere war in Bosnia (1992-5),17 Serbian militia set up ‘rape camps’ to male brain a generation of Muzzlems. By the 21st century, ‘sex checks’ of women athletes at competitions were aspects of the continuing campaign, ‘Santhi Soundarajan from India ran in the 800 meter race at the Asian Games in Qatar. Competing against athletes from 45 countries, she won a silver medal. The next day, however, Soundarajan was called in for a blood test and asked to undress. A few days later, it was announced on Indian national television that Soundarajan had been stripped of her medal because she had failed a sex test.’18 Airport strip searches of Muzzlem women wearing their traditional burkha, that is, the black one piece coverall that prevents their being exposed in public, emphasized the escalating racial discrimination, ‘You are not safe.’19 The United States’ detention center at Cuba`s Guantanamo Bay, after September 11, was a further step towards war with women.
If `rough trade` is preferred, that is, homosexual `brutality and violence`,20 women`s `seed` will be at the back of the `envy queue` until it`s extinct. Ideologically, NVQs perpetuate perceptions inferiority. Stalin (1936-40) and Cambodia’s Pol Pot (1976-9) depopulated their nations, because they disagreed that intellectuals were superior. As women`s sexual reproduction between themselves is denied by men, through their mass media propaganda, and `entertainment` systems, attacks on intellectuality wars against women`s brainpower, which is `penis envy`.
The 'envy queue' is a sign of the anti-intellectuality of `the beast`, `… a mark on their right hand, or upon their forehead; and that no man should be able to buy or to sell, save he that hath the mark.’ (Rev: 13. 16-17) Intelligence isn’t advantageous, because ‘woman’s seed` is the slave of the ‘beast’, so ignorance is superior. The `beast` makes the ‘envy queue’ longer. The socio-economy of the UK since the introduction of the NVQ was characterized by a desire to make others race. The phrase `rat race` had been used to describe those who work, because employers and educators perpetuate racism, that is, the race of `woman`s seed` are always going to be last in the `envy queue` of ‘the beast’, because humanity can’t run.
2 Freud, Sigmund `New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis`, Penguin Freud Library II, p. 158-163.
3 Seven deadly sins, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seven_deadly_sins .
4 NVQs, https://www.nidirect.gov.uk/nvqs .
7 GCSEs, https://www.theguardian.com/education/gcses .
8 Originally produced by the UK`s ABC Weekend Television and later Thames Television, it was aired from July 8, 1967 to May 24, 1972 on the ITV network over four seasons. The series starred Edward Woodward as David Callan, a reluctant professional killer for a shadowy branch of the British Government's intelligence services known as 'The Section'.
9 Callan Method Organization, https://www.callan.co.uk/ .
10 ‘Body and soul’, https://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/religion/body_and_soul.htm .
11 Ford Model-T, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ford_Model_T .
12 Madonna, Penelope Magnet, Terius Nash, Thasibo 'Tab' Nekhereanye, Gary O' Brien, Britney Spears, and Christopher 'Tricky' Stewart 'Me Against The Music', Britney Spears In The Zone, Jive, 2003.
13 sensagent, https://translation.sensagent.com/teacher/en-hu/ .
14 Futanari, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Futanari .
15 Crossley, Lucy `The last living Chinese women with bound feet more than 100 years after the centuries-old symbol of beauty and status was banned`, 20:04 GMT, June 8, 2014.
16 Sheikh Hassan Al Banna in Michael Handelzalts ‘Word for Word: Who's Throwing Who Into the Sea?’ Haaretz, July 6th, 2012, 11: 11 am, https://www.haaretz.com/who-s-throwing-who-into-the-sea-1.5202302 .
17 Socolovsky, Jerome `Bosnian 'Rape Camp' Survivors Testify in The Hague`, WEnews, Wednesday, July 19, 2000, https://womensenews.org/story/rape/000719/bosnian-rape-camp-survivors-testify-the-hague .
18 Ghorayshi, Azeen ‘These Women Athletes Were Barred From Competing Because They Weren’t “Female” Enough’, BuzzFeedNews, August 12th, 2016, 9: 09 am ET, https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/azeenghorayshi/sex-testing-olympians .
19 Robson, Steve Mirror ‘”You are not safe”: Muslim Woman Claims Airport Security Asked Her To Remove Hijab Before Boarding Flight’, April 15, 2017, 16. 17 pm, https://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/you-not-safe-muslim-woman-10229724 .
20 `A male homosexual prostitute who engages in brutality or sadism, or such homosexuals collectively.` https://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Rough+trade .
International English Language Testing System
Most children in primary education in the United Kingdom have been exposed to the IQ Test phenomenon, which requires them to complete a few simple questions to ascertain what intelligence quotient the test preparers have decided to apportion to what they conceive of as the correct answer. After the passing of the British Nationality Act in 1948, which made any citizen of the former colonies of the British Empire, and its more liberal incarnation as the British Commonwealth of politically and socio-economically co-operating nations, eligible to receive citizenship of the United Kingdom. When West Indies` immigrants arrived as cheap labor to work in public service jobs that no one wanted, their children were required to take IQ Tests. Their intelligent quotient was assessed as being at a lower level than native English speakers because they checked the box marked `tomato` when invited to select the odd word out in a question that also included `ugly` and `orange`. When required to explain the curious phenomenon, the West Indian children explained that `ugly` in the West Indies was a hybrid fruit created from oranges, grapefruit and tangerines. The native English speakers believed that they had a higher level of education because they knew that tomatoes were vegetables while oranges were fruit whereas `ugly` was an adjective. Consequently, for the English the knowledge that oranges and tomatoes were fruit and vegetables was the deciding factor, whereas for the West Indians the deciding factor was that oranges and ugly were fruits while tomatoes were vegetables, which meant that their IQ was higher because they`d know that ugly fruits were an oranges, grapefruit and tangerine hybrid. As a result the primary education IQ Test system experienced a hiatus in which the basis for testing was examined. The conclusion was that, although the examination couldn`t be viewed as racist, the questions were culture bound and so a faultless score was indicative of cultural understanding rather than higher intelligence.
English Language Teaching (ELT) was the response of the United Kingdom`s education system to the European Union where French and English were adopted as the two `official` languages of the EU, which was founded as the European Economic Community (EEC) by Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and West Germany. The EU, which the UK joined in 1973, had developed from an economic co-operative into a geo-political bloc by the early 21st century and the beginnings of the inclusion of those newly independent states in Eastern Europe that had endured socio-economic control under the auspices of the former Soviet Union, which had been invaded by an elected National Socialist (Nazi) Germany that fought the Second World War (1939-45) to impose slavery on Eastern Europe. When WWII was over the Russians refused to leave the nations they`d passed through to get to Germany and Germany itself was partitioned into East, that is, Russian, and West, which was British, American and French, because the Western allies had invaded Germany from Western Europe. Consequently, 2004 saw the inclusion of many of the nations of Eastern Europe that had been a part of the Soviet Union before Mikhail Gorbachev`s (1985-91) policy of `glasnost`, that is, Russian `openness`, resulted in the creation of the Russian Federation and the cessation from the former Russian Union of those states that preferred independence, that is, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia, while Romania and Bulgaria joined in 2007, and Croatia in 2013. Providing English Language Teaching (ELT) employment for professional educators was a business opportunity for the UK and so passing the ELT tests devised by the examiners was a new intelligence standard where employment in the EU depended on employees being able to speak either English or French.
Because West Indians coming to the UK in the 1950s had challenged the IQ Test devised by Western culture, the onus on ELT was to provide testing that wasn`t culturally biased, otherwise allegations of racism would surface as a response to intelligent individuals being downgraded for being unable to comprehend English propaganda rather than English language. Most English tests are standard from the point of view of Grammar, that is, reading, listening, speaking and writing. Examiners can mark comprehension; hearing, speech and the written word: but interpretation remains the bugbear. The International English Language Testing System (IELTS) was established in 1989 as an international standardized test of English language proficiency for non-native English language speakers jointly managed by Cambridge English Language Assessment; the British Council; and Australia`s IDP Education. IELTS is a system designed to test the student`s English language proficiency and consists of 0 to 9 bands, where 0 is represented as `No accessible information provided`, that is, the student couldn`t or didn`t take the test, while 9 is `Expert user`. Although IELTS is `banded` so that students can be assessed and graded to fulfil the IELTS band requirements of the University or College to which they seek admittance; for example, Essex University in the United Kingdom requires that students achieve a 5.5 (18-22) IELTS banding for admittance, while Oxford University requires 7.0 (30-1/40). The IELTS examination is based largely on comprehension questions; for which it is often impossible for the students to select the correct answer: because there seem to be several acceptable answers where only one is admissible.
`Most economists in the United states seem captivated by spell of the free market. Consequently, nothing seems good or normal that does not accord with the requirements of the free market. A price that is determined by the seller or for that matter, established by anyone other than the aggregate of consumers seems pernicious, Accordingly, it requires a major act of will to think of price – fixing (the determination of prices by the seller) as both `normal` and having a valuable economic function. In fact, price-fixing is normal in all industrialized societies because the industrial system itself provides, as an effortless consequence of its own development, the price-fixing that requires, Modern industrial planning requires and rewards great size. Hence a comparatively small number of large firms will be competing for the same group of consumers. That each large firm will act with consideration of its own needs and thus avoid selling its products for more than its competitors charge is commonly recognized by advocates of free-markets economic theories. But each large firms will also act with full consideration of the needs that it has in common with the other large firms competing for the same customers. Each large firm will thus avoid significant price cutting, because price cutting would be prejudicial to the common interest in a stable demand for products. Most economists do not see price-fixing when it occurs because they expect it to be brought about by a number of explicit agreements among large firms; it is not. More over those economists who argue that allowing the free market to operate without interference is the most efficient method of establishing prices have not considered the economies of non-socialist countries other than the United States. These economies employ intentional price-fixing usually in an overt fashion. Formal price fixing by cartel and informal price fixing by agreements covering the members of an industry are common place. Were there something peculiarly efficient about the free market and inefficient about price fixing, the countries that have avoided the first and used the second would have suffered drastically in their economic development. There is no indication that they have. Socialist industry also works within a frame work of controlled prices. In early 1970’s, the Soviet Union began to give firms and industries some of the flexibility in adjusting prices that a more informal evolution has accorded the capitalist system. Economists in the United States have hailed the change as a return to the free market. But Soviet firms are no more subject to prices established by free market over which they exercise little influenced than are capitalist firms.`
The primary purpose of the passage is to:
1 refute the theory that the free market plays a useful role in the development of industrialized societies.
2 suggest methods by which economist and members of the government of the United States can recognize and combat price-fixing by large firms.
3 explain the various ways in which industrialized societies can fix in order to stabilized the free market
4 argue that price-fixing, in one form or another, is an inevitable part of and benefit to the economy of any industrialized society.
5 Analysis of free markets in different economies
Correct Answer E
Ignoring the obvious grammatically incomprehensible device of constructing sentences without capital letters apart from the final sentence, which doesn`t have a full stop, the average person reading the text would suppose any or all of the answers offered as possible solutions were correct, because it depends on the opinion of the person or persons who wrote the test. Examiners have no power to do anything other than indicate whether the answer is correct or incorrect on the examination paper, that is, they know nothing at all except what the answers are according to the rubric, for example, `Correct Answer E`1 is all the examiner possesses in terms of the ability to grade the paper because that`s all they need. No understanding of English language is required to mark IELTS comprehension questions. Spanish or Italian speakers, or any speaker of any other language could, without knowledge of English at all. Consequently, students` lives are in the hands of examiners who don`t have to know English and, because the questions are impossible to understand, the students can`t pass unless they`re given the correct answers before the IELTS exam takes place; or they guess correctly. Just as the IQ Test of the 1950s was criticized for latent racism, because West Indies` students were marked down for indicating that `ugly` was a fruit along with oranges, while tomato was a vegetable, and the native English speakers indicated that `ugly` was an adjective, which the devisers of the IQ Test wrongly identified as `correct`, so IELTS students have become the victims of that latent racism.
IELTS` teaching is a preparation system, which means that the teachers prepare the students for the exam rather than teach them English. Consequently, the English Language Teaching (ELT) profession isn`t served well by IELTS either. The teacher is blamed by the students for not preparing them for an examination that it isn`t possible to understand because the deviser of the examination is targeting the competent professional English language teacher also. The teacher is doomed as incompetent, and the student is doomed to failure, because the deviser of the examination is a racist, which is definable as everybody races to the finish line, and no prize for guessing who`s the winner. The theory is that the expert knows the answer, but there`s no evidence to suggest that the teacher or the student are capable of answering the questions based on expertise. The teacher may know the answer from the rubric provided in the teacher`s answer book, or may be able to communicate to the student enough information about the text for the student to gain enough expertise to be able to answer the question correctly. But the teacher isn`t being asked to take the examination. Consequently, although IELTS isn`t a test of the teacher`s inadequate knowledge, rather than his/her ability to teach, the students` ability to answer is tested. In other words, IELTS is devised to assassinate the teacher, who may or may not have enough expertise to pass the IELTS exam as an expert, that is, he/she isn`t required to be, because IELTS` teaching is an exam preparation system that doesn`t require the teacher to have enough knowledge to pass the exam, even though the teacher is required to prepare the students to take the exam. In short, the teacher isn`t required to be expert enough to pass the exam, because he/she doesn`t have to take it:
`I'm as mad as hell, and I'm not going to take this anymore!`2
The students can either guess or answer correctly, according to their understanding of the text, which the teacher may or may not understand, although he/she is able to prepare the students for the IELTS exam. The IELTS test seems designed to stymie both teachers and students, that is, teachers don`t know the answers from their understanding of the text, while students have to rely on their own expertise or otherwise when taking the test, but the system is perfectly adequate. Teachers are required to prepare the students for the test with the answer book to help them, while the students must take the test with the knowledge they`ve gleaned from English Language Teaching (ELT) professionals prior to the IELTS` preparation program, which may or may not be administered and carried out by ELT professionals. Consequently, the IELTS test is designed to be fair to the students. Teachers may or may not be experts, but ELT professionals can be trained to provide IELTS` test preparation. What IELTS means is that teachers prepare students to take exams for experts to pass if the student is expert, not the teacher, who doesn`t have to take the exam, although the students` preparation isn`t handicapped by the IELTS` professional. However, the answers to the IELTS exam remain unanswerable to a large portion of teachers and students, and the test can be manipulated by those with better guesswork than advanced English skills. What IELTS tells ELT is that the teachers can`t teach, and the students have to guess, because it`s unlikely that either of them will know. It`s the opinion of the test devisers that they`re the experts, because they can run the race.
Although the student has to be an expert to attain the IELTS band 9, the ELT professional doesn`t have to be an expert at either ELT or IELTS preparation, that is, it`s the students` responsibility to learn in order to become an expert, which it isn`t the responsibility of the ELT professional to achieve. In short, teacher and student correspond to the slave stereotype in which one is bound to the other, while each tries to master the other with the whip of Righteous Consequence, because it`s a racist system in which the human is the runner but not the winner. The teacher is taxed by the student, who taxes the teacher, and the harder tax are the heart attacks that follow from teacher and student whipping each other on to ever more Herculean efforts, which is unreasoning, because the teacher only has to be an expert to teach in the classroom, while the student has to do a lot more work outside of the classroom in order to be an expert, that is, if the student wants expertise at the `Advanced` level, following success at `Upper-Intermediate`, the student has to learn independently of the teacher, which is what University students are required to do. In simple terms, ELT professionals need to teach what is required for the level of the students, but the students are required to submit material to be graded as classwork and perform homework tasks commensurate with their purported desire to learn. If they don`t learn, there`s very little the teacher can do to improve the student; although the onus is always on the teacher to improve beyond all recognition.
Unfortunately, the all singing, all dancing, juggling and saxophone playing teacher, with his toes on the computer console, and his fingers alive at the Smart Board, won`t learn for the student, who needs to read the designated preparatory book, for example, Cambridge English, and answer the prepared questions in order to prepare for the exam level, which the book is preparing the student for. The teacher`s responsibility is to direct the student as to what they need to study, whereas supposed ELT experts, administrators, etc., perceive it as the teacher`s role to learn, which is false. It`s the teacher`s task to direct the students as to what they must learn in order to pass the exam. The students` objective is to train the teacher to give the answers to the exam or test, rather than learn to pass, while the teacher`s task is conceived by almost everyone concerned as a learner`s, and the teacher believes so, because they`re educated in wage slavery, which calculates that the teacher can never run fast enough to win the race for the human students, whereas it`s obvious to any ELT teacher that they can win for the students everyday if the enriched learners want to learn, rather than whip the poor teacher on with the threat of a decrease in salary as a deterrent to the teacher`s refusing to give them the answers to the exam and make it easier. ELT isn`t like the average Comprehensive School in England, where students have to be there. Students of English language must learn English for their career, or they want to, which leaves them no excuse as learners. They`re not in the ELT professional`s classroom as `deadweight`, which means that they`re there to embrace the teacher`s directing them to study what they need to pass the exam. If they don`t, they`ll fail, and it isn`t the teacher`s responsibility to do other than direct them to what they need to learn, and correct their guided efforts so that they can rectify their mistakes. That there are very few failures is a measure of the students` performance and not the teacher`s, although the teacher is blamed for the failures, whereas the directed student, who fails amongst those who pass after the same direction, is blameable to themselves, unless the teacher is accused of the students` ability to learn.
2 Finch, Peter as Howard Beale in Network, MGM, 1976.